Human and Divine
One and Many
Schools of Instruction
See also:Phaedo by Plato
The Republic by Plato by Plato
Timaeus-Critias by Plato
Degree XXIII — Questions
The most widely disseminated of the ancient worships were those of Isis, Orpheus, Dionysus, Ceres, and Mithras. Many barbarous nations received the knowledge of the mysteries in honour of these divinities from the Egyptians before they arrived in Greece; and even in the British Isles, the Druids celebrated those of Dionysus, learned by them from the Egyptians.
The Mysteries of Eleusis, celebrated at Athens in honour of Ceres, swallowed up, as it were, all the others. All the neighbouring nations neglected their own to celebrate those of Eleusis; and in a little while all Greece and Asia Minor were filled with initiates. They spread into the Roman Empire and even beyond its limits, "those holy and august Eleusinian Mysteries", said Cicero, "in which the people of the remotest lands are initiated". Zosimus says that they embraced the whole human race; and Aristides termed them the common temple of the whole world.
There were, in the Eleusinian feasts, two sorts of Mysteries, the great and the little. The latter were a kind of preparation for the former, and everybody was admitted to them. Ordinarily there was a noviciate of three, and sometimes four, years.
Clemens of Alexandria says that what was taught in the great mysteries concerned the Universe, and was the completion and perfection of all instruction wherein things were seen as they were, and Nature and her works were made known.
The ancients said that the Initiates would be more happy after death than other mortals and that, while the souls of the Profane on leaving their bodies would be plunged in the mire and remain buried in darkness, those of the Initiates would fly to the Fortunate Isles, the abode of the Gods.
Plato said that the object of the mysteries was to re-establish the soul in its primitive purity and in that state of perfection which it had lost. Epictetus said, "whatever is met with therein has been instituted by our Masters for the instruction of man and the correction of morals".
Proclus held that initiation elevated the soul from a material, sensual, and purely human life to a communion and celestial intercourse with the Gods; and that a variety of things, forms, and species were shown initiates representing the first generation of the Gods.
Purity of morals and elevation of soul were required of the Initiates. Candidates were required to be of spotless reputation and irreproachable virtue. Nero, after murdering his mother, did not dare to be present at the celebration of the mysteries; and Anthony presented himself to be initiated as the most infallible mode of proving his innocence of the death of Avidius Cassius.
The Initiates were regarded as the only fortunate men. "Upon us alone", says Aristophanes, "shines the beneficent day-star. We alone receive pleasure from the influence of his rays; we, who are initiated and who practise towards citizen and stranger every possible act of justice and piety". And it is therefore not surprising that, in time, initiation came to be considered as necessary as baptism afterwards was to the Christians, and that not to have been admitted to the Mysteries was held a dishonour.
"It seems to me", said the great orator, philosopher, and moralist Cicero, "that Athens, among many excellent inventions, divine and very useful to the human family, has produced none comparable to the Mysteries which, for a wild and ferocious life have substituted humanity and urbanity of manners. It is with good reason that they use the term initiation: for it is through them that we in reality have learned the first principles of life; and they not only teach us to live in a manner more consoling and agreeable, but they soften the pains of death by the hope of a better life hereafter".
Where the Mysteries originated is not known. It is supposed that they came from India by way of Chaldea into Egypt, and thence were carried into Greece. Wherever they arose, they were practised among all the ancient nations; and, as was usual, the Thracians, Cretans, and Athenians each claimed the honour of invention, and each insisted that they had borrowed nothing from any other people.
The instruction now conveyed by books and letters was of old conveyed by symbols, and the priest had to invent or to perpetuate a display of rites and exhibitions which were not only more attractive to the eye than words, but often to the mind more suggestive and pregnant with meaning.
Afterwards, the institution became moral and political rather than religious. The civil magistrates shaped the ceremonies to political ends in Egypt, and the sages who carried them from that country to Asia, Greece, and the North of Europe were all kings or legislators. The chief magistrate who presided at those of Eleusis was an officer styled King, and the Priest played but a subordinate part.
Nature is as free from dogmatism as from tyranny: and the earliest instructors of mankind not only adopted her lessons but as far as possible adhered to her method of imparting them. They attempted to reach the understanding through the eye; and the greater part of all religious teaching was conveyed through this ancient and most impressive mode of "exhibition" or demonstration. The Mysteries were a sacred drama, exhibiting some legend significant of nature's change, of the visible universe in which the Divinity is revealed and whose import was in many respects as open to the Pagan as to the Christian. Beyond the current traditions or sacred recitals of the temple, few explanations were given to the spectators who were left, as in the school of nature, to make inferences for themselves.
The method of indirect suggestion, by allegory or symbol, is a more efficacious instrument of instruction than plain didactic language since we are habitually indifferent to that which is acquired without effort. "The initiated are few, though many bear the thyrsus". And it would have been impossible to provide a lesson suited to every degree of cultivation and capacity unless it were one framed after Nature's example, or rather a representation of Nature herself, employing her universal symbolism instead of technicalities of language, inviting endless research yet rewarding the humblest inquirer, and disclosing its secrets to every one in proportion to his preparatory training and power to comprehend them.
Even if destitute of any formal or official enunciation of those important truths, which even in a cultivated age it was often found inexpedient to assert except under a veil of allegory, and which moreover lose their dignity and value in proportion as they are learned mechanically as dogmas, the shows of the mysteries certainly contained suggestions, if not lessons, which in the opinion not of one competent witness only but of many, were adapted to elevate the character of the spectators, enabling them to augur something of the purposes of existence as well as of the means of improving it, to live better and to die happier.
Unlike the religion of books or creeds, these mystic shows and performances were not the reading of a lecture but the opening of a problem, implying neither exemption from research nor hostility to philosophy for, on the contrary, philosophy is the great Mystagogue or Arch-Expounder of symbolism — though the interpretations by the Grecian Philosophy of the old myths and symbols were in many instances as ill-founded as in others they are correct.
No better means could be devised to rouse a dormant intellect than those impressive exhibitions which addressed it through the imagination and which, instead of condemning it to a prescribed routine or creed, invited it to seek, compare, and judge. The alteration from symbol to dogma is as fatal to beauty of expression as that from faith to dogma is to truth and wholesomeness of thought.
The first philosophy often reverted to the natural mode of teaching; and Socrates, in particular, is said to have eschewed dogmas, endeavouring, like the mysteries, rather to awaken and develop in the minds of his hearers the ideas with which they were already endowed or pregnant, than to fill them with ready-made adventitious opinions.
So Masonry still follows the ancient manner of teaching. Her symbols are the instruction she gives, and the lectures are often but partial and insufficient one-sided endeavours to interpret these symbols. He who would become an accomplished Mason must not be content merely to hear or even to understand the lectures but must, aided by them, and they having as it were marked out the way for him, study, interpret, and develop the symbols for himself.
The earliest speculation endeavoured to express far more than it could distinctly comprehend; and the vague impressions of the mind found in the mysterious analogies of the phenomena their most apt and energetic representations. The Mysteries, like the symbols of Masonry, were but an image of the eloquent analogies of Nature; neither reveals any new secret to such as were or are unprepared or incapable of interpreting their significance.
The Mysteries embraced the three great doctrines of Ancient Theosophy. They treated of God, Man, and Nature. Dionysus, whose Mysteries Orpheus is said to have founded, was the God of Nature, or of the moisture which is the life of Nature, who prepares in darkness the return of life and vegetation, or who is himself the Light and Change evolving their varieties. He was theologically one with Hermes, Prometheus, and Poseidon. In the Aegean Islands, he is Butes, Dardanus, Himeros, or Imbros. In Crete he appears as Iasius or Zeus whose worship, remaining unveiled by the usual forms of mystery, betrayed to profane curiosity the symbols which, if irreverently contemplated, were sure to be misunderstood. In Asia he is the long-stoled Bassareus coalescing with the Sabazius of the Phrygian Corybantes; the same with the mystic Iacchus, nursling or son or Ceres, and with the dismembered Zagreus, son of Persephone.
The spiritual regeneration of man was typified in the Mysteries by the second birth of Dionysus as offspring of the Highest, and the agents and symbols of that regeneration were the elements that effected Nature's periodical purification — the air, indicated by the mystic fan or window; the fire, signified by the torch; and the baptismal water: for water is not only cleanser of all things but the genesis and source of all.
These notions, clothed in ritual, suggested the soul's reformation and training, the moral purity formally proclaimed at Eleusis. He only was invited to approach who was "of clean hands and ingenuous speech, free from all pollution, and with a clear conscience". "Happy the man", say the initiated in Euripides and Aristophanes, "who purifies his life and who reverently consecrates his soul in the thiasus of the God. Let him take heed to his lips that he utter no profane word; let him be just and kind to the stranger and to his neighbour; let him give way to no vicious excess, lest he make dull and heavy the organs of the spirit. Far from the mystic dance of the thiasus be the impure, the evil speaker, the seditious citizen, the selfish hunter after gain. The traitor — all those, in short, whose practices are more akin to the riot of Titans than to the regulated life of the Orphei or to the Curetan order of the Priets of Idaean Zeus".
The votary, elevated beyond the sphere of his ordinary faculties and unable to account for the agitation which overpowered him, seemed to become divine in proportion as he ceased to be human, to be a daemon or god. Already, in imagination, the initiated were numbered among the beatified. They alone enjoyed the true life, the Sun's true lustre, while they hymned their God beneath the mystic groves of a mimic Elysium and were really renovated or regenerated under the genial influence of their dances.
"They whom Prosperina guides in her mysteries", it was said, "who imbibe her instruction and spiritual nourishment, rest from their labours and know strife no more. Happy they who witness and comprehend these sacred ceremonies! They are made to know the meaning of the riddle of existence by observing its aim and termination as appointed by Zeus; they partake a benefit more valuable and enduring than the grain bestowed by Ceres, for they are exalted in the scale of intellectual existence and obtain sweet hopes to console them at their death".
Whatever pictures later, and especially Christian, writers may draw of the Mysteries, they must not only originally but for many ages have been of the highest importance, because both the most virtuous as well as the most learned and philosophic of the ancients speak of them in the loftiest terms. We know that they ultimately became corrupted and degraded from their high estate.
The rites of Initiation became progressively more complicated. Signs and tokens were invented by which the Children of Light could with facility make themselves known to each other. Different degrees were invented as the number of initiates enlarged, in order that there might be in the inner apartment of the Temple a favoured few to whom alone the more valuable secrets were entrusted and who could wield effectually the influence and power of the Order.
Originally the Mysteries were meant to be the beginning of a new life of reason and virtue. The initiated or esoteric companions were taught the doctrine of the One Supreme God, the theory of death and eternity, the hidden mysteries of Nature, the prospect of the ultimate restoration of the soul to that state of perfection from which it had fallen, its immortality, and the states of reward and punishment after death. The uninitiated were deemed Profane, unworthy of public employment or private confidence, sometimes proscribed as Atheists, and certain of everlasting punishment beyond the grave.
All persons were initiated into the lesser mysteries, but few attained the greater, in which their true spirit and most of their secret doctrines were hidden. The veil of secrecy was impenetrable, sealed by the most tremendous and appalling oaths and penalties. It was by initiation only that a knowledge of the Hieroglyphics could be obtained, with which the walls, columns, and ceilings of the Temples were decorated, and which, believed to have been communicated to the Priests by revelation from the celestial deities, the youth of all ranks were laudably ambitious of deciphering.
The ceremonies were performed at dead of night, generally in apartments under ground, but sometimes in the centre of a vast pyramid with every appliance that could alarm and excite the candidate. Innumerable ceremonies, wild, romantic, dreadful, and appalling, had by degrees been added to the few expressive symbols of primitive observance, under which there were instances in which the terrified aspirant actually expired with fear.
The pyramids were probably used for the purposes of initiation, as were caverns, pagodas, and labyrinths; for the ceremonies required many apartments, cells, long passages, and wells. In Egypt, a principal place for the mysteries was the island of Philae on the Nile, where a magnificent Temple of Osiris stood and his relics were said to be interred.
But the Kings, Philosophers and Statesmen, the wise and great and good who were admitted to the Mysteries, long postponed their ultimate self-destruction, and restrained the natural tendencies of the Priesthood. And accordingly Zosimus thought that the neglect of the Mysteries after Diocletian abdicated was the chief cause of the decline of the Roman Empire; and in the year 364, the Proconsul of Greece would not close the Mysteries, notwithstanding a law of the Emperor Valentinian, lest the people should be driven to desperation if prevented from performing them upon which, as they believed, the welfare of mankind depended. They were practised in Athens until the 8th century; in Greece and Rome for several centuries after Christ; and in Wales and Scotland down to the twelfth century. [And can anyone who attentively reads this "Lecture" and then enters what is popularly known as "the great passage-tomb" at Newgrange in Ireland doubt that he or she is actually visiting an ancient initiation chamber? — Ed.]
There, perhaps, the mysteries commenced; and in them, under allegories, were taught the primitive truths. We cannot, within the limits of this lecture, detail the ceremonies of initiation, and shall use general language except where something from those old mysteries still remain in Masonry.
The Initiate was invested with a cord of three threads, so twined as to make three times three, and called zennar. Hence comes our cable-tow. It was an emblem of their triune Deity, the remembrance of whom we also preserve in the three chief officers of our Lodges, presiding in the three quarters of the Universe which our Lodges represent; in our three greater and three lesser lights, our three movable and three immovable jewels, and the three pillars that support our Lodges.
The Indian Mysteries were celebrated in subterranean caverns and grottoes hewn in the solid rock, and the Initiates adored the Deity, symbolised by the solar fire. The candidate, long wandering in darkness, truly wanted Light, and the worship taught him was the worship of God, the Source of Light. The vast Temple of Elephanta, perhaps the oldest in the world, hewn out of the rock and 135 feet square, was used for initiations, as were the still vaster caverns of Salsette, with their 300 apartments.
The periods of initiation were regulated by the increase and decrease of the moon. The Mysteries were divided into four steps or degrees. The Candidate might receive the first at eight years of age, when he was invested with the zennar. Each degree dispensed something of perfection. "Let the wretched man", says the Hitopadesa, "practise virtue whenever he enjoys one of the three or four religious degrees; let him be even-minded with all created things, and that disposition will be the source of virtue".
After various ceremonies, chiefly relating to the unity and trinity of the Godhead, the candidate was clothed in a linen garment without a seam, and remained under the care of a Brahmin until he was twenty years of age, constantly studying and practising the most rigid virtue. Then he underwent the severest probation for the second degree, in which he was sanctified by the sign of the cross which, pointing to the four quarters of the compass, was honoured as a striking symbol of the Universe by many nations of antiquity, and was imitated by the Indians in the shape of their temples.
Then he was admitted to the Holy Cavern, blazing with light, where, in costly robes sat, in the East, West, and South, the three chief Hierophants representing the Indian triune Deity. The ceremonies there commenced with an anthem to the Great God of Nature; and then followed this apostrophe: "O mighty Being! Greater than Brahma! We bow down before Thee as the primal Creator! Eternal God of Gods! The World's Mansion! Thou art the Incorruptible Being, distinct from all things transient! Thou art before all Gods, the Ancient Absolute Existence, and the Supreme Supporter of the Universe! Thou art the Supreme Mansion; and by Thee, O Infinite Form, the Universe was spread abroad".
The Candidate, thus taught the first great primitive truth, was called upon to make a formal declaration that he would be tractable and obedient to his superiors; that he would keep his body pure, govern his tongue, and observe a passive obedience in receiving the doctrines and traditions of the Order, and the firmest secrecy in maintaining inviolate its hidden and abstruse mysteries. Then he was sprinkled with water (whence our baptism); certain words, now unknown, were whispered in his ear; and he was divested of his shoes and made to go three times round the cavern. Hence our three circuits; hence we were neither barefoot not shod; and the words were the passwords of that Indian degree.
Ethiopia was then a powerful state which preceded Egypt in civilisation, and had a theocratic government. Above the Kings was the Priest, who could put him to death in the name of the Deity.
Egypt was then composed of the Thebaid only. Middle Egypt and the Delta were a gulf of the Mediterranean. The Nile by degrees formed an immense marsh which afterwards, drained by the labour of man, formed Lower Egypt, and was for many centuries governed by the Ethiopian sacerdotal caste, of Arabic origin, afterwards displaced by a dynasty of warriors. The magnificent ruins of Axum, with its obelisks and hieroglyphics, temples, vast tombs and pyramids around ancient Meroe, are far older than the pyramids near Memphis.
The Priests, taught by Hermes, embodied in books the occult and hermetic sciences with their own discoveries and the revelations of the Sibyls. They studied particularly the most abstract sciences, discovered the famous geometrical theorems which Pythagoras afterwards learned from them, calculated eclipses, and regulated the Julian year nineteen centuries before Caesar. They descended to practical investigations as to the necessities of life, and made their discoveries known to the people; they cultivated the fine arts, and inspired the people with that enthusiasm which produced the avenues of Thebes, the Labyrinth, the Temples of Karnak, Denderah, Edfou, and Philae, the monolithic obelisks, and the great Lake Moeris, the fertiliser of the country.
The wisdom of the Egyptian Initiates, the high sciences and lofty morality which they taught, and their immense knowledge, excited the emulation of the most eminent men, whatever their rank and fortune, and led them, despite the complicated and terrible trials to be undergone, to seek admission into the mysteries of Osiris and Isis.
From Egypt, the mysteries went to Phoenicia, and were celebrated at Tyre. Osiris changed his name and became Adonis or Dionysus, still the representative of the Sun; and afterwards these mysteries were introduced successively into Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Greece, Sicily, and Italy. In Greece and Sicily, Osiris took the name of Bacchus, and Isis that of Ceres, Cybele, Rhea, and Venus.
Manetho extracted his history from certain pillars which he discovered in Egypt whereon inscriptions had been made by Thoth, or the first Mercury (or Hermes), in the sacred letters and alphabet, but which were after the flood translated from that dialect into the Greek tongue and laid up in the private recesses of the Egyptian Temples. These pillars were found in subterranean caverns near Thebes and beyond the Nile, not far from the sounding statue of Memnon, in a place called Syringes. The caverns are described to be certain winding apartments underground made, it is said, by those who were skilled in ancient rites who, foreseeing the coming of the Deluge and fearing lest the memory of their ceremonies should be obliterated, built and contrived vaults dug with vast labour in several places.
From the bosom of Egypt sprang a young man of consummate wisdom, initiated in the secret knowledge of India, of Persia, and of Ethiopia, named Thoth or Phtha by his compatriots, Taaut by the Phoenicians, Hermes Trismegistus by the Greeks, and Addris by the Rabbins. Nature seemed to have chosen him for her favourite, and to have lavished on him all the qualities necessary to enable him to study her and to know her thoroughly. The Deity had, so to say, infused into him the sciences and the arts in order that he might instruct the whole world.
He invented many things necessary for the uses of life, and gave them suitable names; he taught men how to write down their thoughts and arrange their speech; he instituted the ceremonies to be observed in the worship of each of the Gods; he observed the courses of the stars; he invented music, the different bodily exercises, arithmetic, medicine, the art of working in metals, the lyre with three strings. He regulated the three tones of the voice — the sharp, taken from autumn; the grave, from winter; and the middle, from spring; there being then but three seasons. It was he who taught the Greeks the mode of interpreting terms and things, whence they gave him the name of Hermes which signifies Interpreter.
In Egypt he instituted hieroglyphics: he selected a number of persons whom he judged fittest to be the depositories of his secrets of such only as were capable of attaining the throne and the first offices in the Mysteries; he united them in a body, created them Priests of the Living God, instructed them in the sciences and arts, and explained to them the symbols by which they were veiled. Egypt, 1500 years before the time of Moses, revered in the Mysteries the One Supreme God called the Only Uncreated. Under Him, it paid homage to seven principal deities. It is to Hermes, who lived at that period, that we must attribute the concealment or veiling of the Indian worship which Moses unveiled or revealed, changing nothing of the laws of Hermes except the plurality of his mystic Gods.
The Egyptian Priests related that Hermes, dying, said: "Hitherto I have lived an exile from my true country: now I return thither. Do not weep for me. I return to that celestial country whither each goes in his turn. There is God. This life is but a death". This is precisely the creed of the old Buddhists or Samaneans, who believed that from time to time God sent Buddhas on earth to reform men, to wean them from their vices, and lead them back into the paths of virtue.
The great secrecy observed for many years by the initiated Priests, and the lofty sciences which they professed, caused them to be honoured and respected throughout all Egypt, which was regarded by other nations as the college, the sanctuary, of the sciences and arts. The mystery which surrounded them strongly excited curiosity. Orpheus metamorphosed himself, so to say, into an Egyptian. He was initiated into Theology and Physics. And he so completely made the ideas and reasonings of his teachers his own that his hymns rather bespeak the Egyptian Priest than a Grecian Poet: and he was the first who carried into Greece the Egyptian fables.
Pythagoras, ever thirsty for learning, consented even to be circumcised in order to become one of the Initiates, and the occult sciences were revealed to him in the innermost part of the sanctuary.
When the destruction by Cambyses of many cities, and the ruin of nearly all Egypt in the year 528 before our era, dispersed most of the Priests into Greece and elsewhere, they bore with them their sciences, which they continued to teach enigmatically, that is to say, ever enveloped in the obscurities of fables and hieroglyphics, to the end that the vulgar herd, seeing might see nothing and hearing might comprehend nothing. All the writers drew from this source: but these mysteries, concealed under so many unexplained envelopes, ended in giving birth to a swarm of absurdities which, from Greece, spread over the whole Earth.
In his lectures, Pythagoras taught the mathematics as a medium whereby to prove the existence of God from observation and by means of reason; grammar, rhetoric, and logic, to cultivate and improve that reason; arithmetic, because he conceived that the ultimate benefit of man consisted in the science of numbers; and geometry, music, and astronomy, because he conceived that man is indebted to them for a knowledge of what is really good and useful.
He taught the true method of obtaining a knowledge of the Divine laws to purify the soul from its imperfections, to search for truth, and to practise virtue — thus imitating the perfections of God. He thought his system vain if it did not contribute to expel vice from, and introduce virtue into, the mind. He taught that the two most excellent things were to speak the truth and to render benefits to one another. Particularly he inculcated Silence, Temperance, Fortitude, Prudence, and Justice. He taught the immortality of the soul, the Omnipotence of God, and the necessity of personal holiness to qualify a man for admission into the Society of the Gods.
Thus we owe the particular mode of instruction in the Degree of Fellow-Craft to Pythagoras; and that degree is but an imperfect reproduction of his lectures. From him, too, we have many of our explanations of the symbols. He arranged his assemblies due East and West, because he held that Motion began in the East and proceeded to the West. Our Lodges are said to be due East and West because the Master represents the rising Sun, and of course must be in the East. The pyramids, too, were built precisely by the four cardinal points. And our expression, that our Lodges extend upwards to the Heavens, comes from the Persian and Druidic custom of having to their Temples no roofs but the sky.
Plato developed and spiritualised the philosophy of Pythagoras. Even Eusebius, the Christian, admits that he [presumably Plato — Ed.] reached to the vestibule of Truth, and stood upon its threshold.
There was a surprising uniformity in the Temples, Priests, doctrines and worship of the Persian Magi and British Druids. The Gods of Britain were the same as the Cabiri of Samothrace. Osiris and Isis appeared in their Mysteries under the names of Hu and Ceridwen; and like those of the primitive Persians, their Temples were enclosures of huge unhewn stones, some of which still remain and are regarded by the common people with fear and veneration. They were generally either circular or oval. Some were in the shape of a circle to which a vast serpent was attached. The circle was an Eastern symbol of the Universe, governed by an Omnipotent Deity Whose centre is everywhere and His circumference nowhere; and the egg was a universal symbol of the world. Some of the Temples were winged, and some in the shape of a cross. The winged ones referred to Kneph, the winged Serpent-Deity of Egypt, whence the name of Navestock where one of them stood. Temples in the shape of a cross were found in Ireland and Scotland. The length of one of these structures, in the shape of a serpent, was nearly three miles.
The grand periods for initiation into the Druidical Mysteries were quarterly, at the equinoxes and solstices. In the remote times when they originated, these were the times corresponding with the 13th of February, 1st of May, 19th of August, and 1st of November. The time of annual celebration was May-Eve, and the ceremonial preparations began at midnight on the 29th of April. When the initiations were over, on May-Eve, fires were kindled on all the cairns and cromlechs in the island, and burned all night to introduce the sports of May-day. The festival was in honour of the Sun. The initiations were performed at midnight, and there were three degrees.
He held the numbers three and nine in particular veneration, and was himself probably the Indian Buddha. Every thrice-three months, thrice-three victims were sacrificed to the triune God.
The Goths had three great festivals, the most magnificent of which commenced at the winter Solstice and was celebrated in honour of Thor, the Prince of the Power of Air. That being the longest night in the year, and the one after which the Sun comes Northward, it was commemorative of the Creation; and they termed it Mother-Night, as the one in which the creation of the world and light from the primitive darkness took place. This was the Yule, Juul, or Yeol feast which afterwards became Christmas. At this feast, initiations were celebrated. Thor was the Sun, the Egyptian Osiris, and Kneph, the Phoenician Bel or Baal. The initiations were held in huge intricate caverns, where the Candidate was brought to light.
So also must Moses have been initiated: for he was not only brought up in the court of the King as the adopted son of the King's daughter until he was forty years of age; but he was instructed in all the learning of the Egyptians, and married afterwards a daughter of Jethro, a Priest of On likewise. Strabo and Diodorus both assert that he was himself a Priest of Heliopolis. Before he went into the desert there were intimate relations between him and the Priesthood; and Josephus informs us that he had successfully commanded an army sent by the King against the Ethiopians.
Simplicius asserts that Moses received from the Egyptians, in the Mysteries, the doctrines which he taught to the Hebrews; and Clement of Alexandria and Philo say that he was a Theologian and a Prophet, and interpreter of the Sacred Laws. Manetho, cited by Josephus, says that he was a Priest of Heliopolis, and that his true and original (Egyptian) name was Asersaph or Osarsiph.
And in the institution of the Hebrew Priesthood, in the powers and privileges as well as in the immunities and sanctity which he conferred upon them, he closely imitated the Egyptian institution, making public the worship of that Deity whom the Egyptian Initiates worshipped in private, and strenuously endeavouring to keep the people from relapsing into their old mixture of Chaldeic and Egyptian superstition and idol-worship, as they were ever ready and inclined to do. Even Aaron, upon their first clamorous discontent, restored the worship of Apis as an image of which Egyptian God he made the golden calf.
The Egyptian Priests taught in their great Mysteries that there was one God, Supreme and Unapproachable, Who had conceived the Universe by His Intelligence before He created it by His Power and Will. They were no Materialists nor Pantheists, but taught that Matter was not eternal or co-existent with the great First cause, but created by Him.
The early Christians, taught by the founder of their religion, but in greater perfection, those primitive truths that from the Egyptians had passed to the Jews and been preserved among the latter by the Essenes, received also the institution of the Mysteries, adopting as their object the building of the symbolic Temple, preserving the old Scriptures of the Jews as their sacred book and as the fundamental law which furnished the new veil of Initiation with the Hebraic words and formulas which, corrupted and disfigured by time and ignorance, appear in many of our degrees.
Such, my Brother, is the doctrine of the first degree of the Mysteries, or that of Chief of the Tabernacle, to which you have now been admitted, and the moral lesson of which is devotion to the service of God and disinterested and constant endeavour for the welfare of men. You have here received only hints of the true objects and purposes of the Mysteries. Hereafter, if you are permitted to advance, you will arrive at a more complete understanding of them and of the sublime doctrines which they teach. Be content, therefore, with that which you have seen and heard, and await patiently the advent of the greater light.