|History of Religion
Esoteric and Exoteric
Egyptian and Oriental Influences
Pharisees and Sadducees
Essenes, Therapeuts, and John the Baptist
Paul and Others
Essene Doctrine and Practice
Intermediaries Between God and the World
The Apocalypse (Revelation)
One Grand Idea
See also:Introduction to The Christian Bible
Bible Mystery & Bible Meaning
The Mystics of Islam
The Law and the Word
Degree XVII Question Set 1
Degree XVII Question Set 2
Degree XVII Question Set 3
We are about to approach those ancient Religions which once ruled the minds of men and whose ruins encumber the plains of the great Past as the broken columns of Palmyra and Tadmor [an ancient city in Syria which the Romans called Palmyra Ed.] lie bleaching on the sands of the desert. They rise before us, those old, strange, mysterious creeds and faiths, shrouded in the mists of antiquity, and stalk dimly and undefined along the line which divides Time from Eternity; and forms of strange, wild, startling beauty mingle in the vast throng of figures with shapes monstrous, grotesque and hideous.
At the time when John the Baptist made his appearance in the desert near the shores of the Dead Sea, all the old philosophical and religious systems were approximating towards each other. A general lassitude inclined the minds of all towards the quietude of that amalgamation of doctrines for which the expeditions of Alexander [Alexander the Great, 356-323 BCE] and the more peaceful occurrences that followed, with the establishment in Asia and Africa of many Grecian dynasties and a great number of Grecian colonies, had prepared the way. After the intermingling of different nations which resulted from the wars of Alexander in three-quarters of the globe, the doctrines of Greece, of Egypt, of Persia and of India met and intermingled everywhere. All the barriers that had formerly kept the nations apart were thrown down; and while the People of the West readily connected their faith with those of the East, the People of the Orient hastened to learn the traditions of Greece and the legends of Athens. While the Philosophers of Greece, all (except the disciples of Epicurus [341-270 BCE, Greek philosopher Ed.]) more or less Platonists [followers of Plato, c. 427-347 BCE, Greek philosopher Ed.], seized eagerly upon the beliefs and doctrines of the East, the Jews and the Egyptians, before then the most exclusive of all peoples, yielded to that eclecticism which prevailed among their masters, the Greeks and Romans.
Under the same influences of toleration, even those who embraced Christianity mingled together the old and the new, Christianity and Philosophy, the Apostolic teachings, and the traditions of Mythology. The man of intellect, devotee of one system, rarely displaces it with another in all its purity. The people take such a creed as is offered to them. Accordingly, the distinction between the esoteric and the exoteric doctrine, immemorial in other creeds, easily gained a foothold among many of the Christians; and it was held by a vast number, even during the preaching of Paul [the St Paul of the New Testament, d. c. 65 CE, Ed.], that the writings of the Apostles were incomplete: that they contained only the germs of another doctrine which must receive from the hands of philosophy not only the systematic arrangement which was wanting but all the development which lay concealed therein. The writings of the Apostles, they said, in addressing themselves to mankind in general, enunciated only the articles of the vulgar faith; but transmitted the mysteries of knowledge to superior minds, to the Elect mysteries handed down from generation to generation in esoteric traditions: and to this science of the mysteries they gave the name of Gnosis.
Emanation from the Deity of all spiritual beings, progressive degeneration of these beings from generation to generation, redemption and return of all to the purity of the Creator and, after the re-establishment of the primitive harmony of all, a fortunate and truly divine condition of all in the bosom of God: such were the fundamental teachings of Gnosticism. The genius of the Orient, with its contemplations, irradiations and intuitions, dictated its doctrines. Its language corresponded to its origins. Full of imagery, it had all the magnificence, the inconsistencies, and the mobility of the figurative style.
Behold, it said, as the light which emanates from an immense centre of Light spreads everywhere its benevolent rays, so do the spirits of Light emanate from the Divine Light. Behold, as all the springs which nourish, embellish, fertilise, and purify the Earth emanate from one and the same ocean, so from the bosom of the Divinity emanate so many streams which form and fill the universe of Intelligences. Behold numbers, which all emanate from one primitive number, all resemble it, all are composed of its essence, and still vary infinitely; and utterances, decomposable into so many syllables and elements, all contained in the primitive word and still infinitely various: so the world of Intelligences emanated from a Primary Intelligence, and they all resemble it and yet display an infinite variety of existences.
Gnosticism revived and combined the old doctrines of the Orient and the Occident, and it found in many passages of the Gospels and the Pastoral letters a warrant for doing so. Christ himself spoke in parables and allegories; John [St John, disciple of Jesus, who wrote the Gospel and three Epistles which carries his name, as well as the Book of Revelation. Ed.] borrowed the enigmatic language of the Platonists; and Paul often indulged in incomprehensible rhapsodies, the meaning of which could have been clear to the initiates alone.
It is admitted that the cradle of Gnosticism is probably to be looked for in Syria, and even in Palestine. Most of its expounders wrote in that corrupted form of Greek used by the Hellenistic Jews in the Septuagint [the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament. Ed.] and the New Testament: and there was a striking analogy between their doctrines and those of the Egyptian Philo, of Alexandria, the seat of three schools at once philosophic and religious the Greek, the Egyptian and the Jewish.
Pythagoras [c.580-c.500BCE, Greek philosopher, mystic, and mathematician. Ed.] and Plato, the most mystical of the Grecian Philosophers (the latter heir to the doctrines of the former), and who had travelled the latter in Egypt and the former in Phoenicia, India and Persia also taught the esoteric doctrine and the distinction between the initiated and the profane. The dominant doctrines of Platonism were found in Gnosticism: emanation of Intelligences from the bosom of the Deity; the going astray in error and the sufferings of spirits, so long as they are remote from God and imprisoned in matter; vain and long-continued efforts to arrive at the knowledge of the Truth and re-enter into their primitive union with the Supreme Being; alliance of a pure and divine soul with an irrational soul, the seat of evil desires; angels or demons who dwell in and govern the planets, having but an imperfect knowledge of the ideas that presided at the creation; regeneration of all beings by their return to the kosmos noetos, the world of Intelligences and its Chief, the Supreme Being; one sole possible mode of re-establishing that primitive harmony of the creation, of which the music of the spheres of Pythagoras was the image. These were the analogies of the two systems; and we discover in them some of the ideas that form a part of Masonry in which, in the present mutilated condition of the symbolic degrees, they are disguised and overlaid with fiction and absurdity, or present themselves as casual hints that are passed by wholly unnoticed.
The Jewish-Greek School of Alexandria is known only by two of its Chiefs, Aristobulus [Aristobulus of Paneas, fl. 2nd. century BCE, Jewish Hellenistic philosopher. Ed.] and Philo, both Jews of Alexandria in Egypt. Belonging to Asia by its origin, to Egypt by its residence, to Greece by its language and studies, it strove to show that all truths embedded in the philosophies of other countries were transplanted thither from Palestine. Aristobulus declared that all the facts and details of the Jewish Scriptures were so many allegories concealing the most profound meanings, and that Plato had borrowed from them all his finest ideas. Philo, who lived a century after him, following the same theory, endeavoured to show that the Hebrew writings, by their system of allegories, were the true source of all religious and philosophical doctrines. According to him, the literal meaning is for the vulgar alone. Whoever has meditated on philosophy has purified himself by virtue and raised himself by contemplation to God and the intellectual world and received their inspiration, pierces the gross envelope of the letter, discovers a wholly different order of things, and is initiated into mysteries of which the elementary or literal instruction offers but an imperfect image. A historical fact, a figure, a word, a number, a rite, a custom, the parable or vision of a prophet, veil the most profound truths: and he who has the key of science will interpret all according to the light he possesses.
Again we see the symbolism of Masonry and the search of the candidate for light. "Let men of narrow minds withdraw", he says, "with closed ears. We transmit the divine mysteries to those who have received the sacred initiation, to those who practise true piety, and who are not enslaved by the empty trappings of words or the preconceived opinions of the pagans."
To Philo, the Supreme Being was the Primitive Light or the Archetype of Light, the Source whence the rays emanate that illuminate Souls. He was also the Soul of the Universe and, as such, acted in all its parts. He Himself fills and limits His whole Being. His Powers and Virtues fill and penetrate all. These Powers (dunameis) are spirits distinct from God, the Ideas of Plato personified. He is without beginning and lives in the prototype of Time (aion).
His image is THE WORD (Logos), a form more brilliant than fire, that not being the pure light. This LOGOS dwells in God; for the Supreme Being makes to Himself within His Intelligence the types or ideas of everything that is to become reality in this World. The LOGOS is the vehicle by which God acts on the Universe, and may be compared to the speech of man.
The LOGOS being the World of Ideas by means whereof God has created visible things, He is the most ancient God, in comparison with the World which is the youngest production. The LOGOS, Chief of Intelligences, of which he is the general representative, is named Archangel, type and representative of all spirits, even those of mortals. He is also styled the man-type and primitive man.
God only is Wise. The wisdom of man is but the reflection and image of that of God. He is the Father, and His WISDOM the Mother, of creation: for He united Himself with WISDOM (Sophia), and communicated to it the germ of creation, and it brought forth the material world. He created the ideal world only, and caused the material world to be made after its type by His LOGOS, which is His speech, and at the same time the Idea of Ideas, the Intellectual World. The Intellectual City was but the Thought of the Architect who meditated the creation according to that plan of the Material City.
The Word is not only the Creator but occupies the place of the Supreme Being. All the Powers and Attributes of God act through the Word. On the other side, as first representative of the Human Family, he is the Protector of men and their Shepherd.
God gives to man the Soul or Intelligence, which exists before the body and which He unites with the body. The reasoning Principle comes from God through the Word, and communes with God and with the Word; but there is also in man an irrational Principle, that of the inclinations and passions which produce disorder, emanating from the inferior spirits who fill the air as ministers of God. The body, taken from the Earth, and the irrational Principle that animates it concurrently with the rational Principle, are hated by God, while the rational soul which He has given to it is, as it were, captive in this prison, this coffin, that encompasses it. The present condition of man is not his primitive condition when he was the image of the Logos. He has fallen from his first estate. But he may raise himself again by following the directions of Wisdom (Sophia) and of the Angels which God has commissioned to aid him in freeing himself from the bonds of the body and combating Evil, the existence whereof God has permitted in order to furnish him the means of exercising his liberty. The souls that are purified, not by the Law but by Light, rise to the Heavenly regions to enjoy there a perfect felicity. Those that persevere in evil go from body to body, the seats of passions and evil desires. The familiar lineaments of these doctrines will be recognised by all who read the Epistles of St Paul, who wrote after Philo, the latter living in the age of Caligula [12-41CE, Roman emperor from 37 to 41. Ed.] and being the contemporary of Christ.
And the Mason is familiar with these doctrines of Philo: that the Supreme Being is a centre of Light whose rays or emanations pervade the Universe, for that is the Light for which all Masonic journeys are a search and of which the sun and moon in our Lodges are only emblems; that Light and that Darkness, chief enemies from the beginning of Time, dispute with each other the empire of the world, which we symbolise by the candidate wandering in darkness and being brought to light; that the world was created, not by the Supreme Being, but by a secondary agent, who is but His Word (the Logos), and by types which are but His ideas aided by an INTELLIGENCE or Wisdom (Sophia) which is one of His Attributes; in which we see the occult meaning of the necessity of recovering the Word, and of our two columns of STRENGTH and WISDOM, which are also the two parallel lines that bound the circle representing the Universe; that the visible world is the image of the invisible world; that the essence of the Human Soul is the image of God and existed before the body; that the object of its terrestrial life is to disengage itself of its body or sepulchre, and that it will ascend to the Heavenly regions whenever it shall be purified; in which we see the meaning, now almost forgotten in the Lodges, of the mode of preparation of the candidate for apprenticeship, and his tests and purifications in all the degrees.
AMUN, at first the God of Lower Egypt only, where Moses was reared, was the Supreme God. He was styled the Celestial Lord, who sheds Light in hidden things. He was the source of that divine life of which the crux ansata is the symbol, and the source of all Power. He united all the attributes that the Ancient Oriental Theosophy assigned to the Supreme Being. He was the Pleroma, or Fullness of things, for He comprehended in Himself everything; and the LIGHT, for He was the Sun-God. He was unchangeable in the midst of everything phenomenal in His worlds. He created nothing: but everything emanated from Him; and of Him all the other gods were but manifestations.
The Ram was his living symbol, which you will see reproduced in this Degree lying on the book with seven seals on the tracing-board. He caused the creation of the world by the Primitive Thought (Ennoia) or Spirit (Pneuma) that issued from him by means of his Voice or the WORD. This Thought or Spirit was personified as the Goddess NEITH. She, too, was a divinity of Light, and mother of the Sun; and the Feast of Lamps was celebrated in her honour at Sais [ancient Egyptian city in the Nile delta. Ed.]. The Creative Power, another manifestation of Deity, proceeding to the creation conceived of in Her, the Divine Intelligence, produced with his word the Universe, symbolised by an egg issuing from the mouth of KNEPH, from which egg came PHTHA, image of the Supreme Intelligence as realised in the world and the type of that manifested in man; the principal agent, also, of Nature, or the creative and productive Fire. PHRE or RE, the Sun or Celestial Light, whose symbol was the point within the circle, was the son of PHTHA. TIPHE, his wife, or the celestial firmament, with the seven celestial bodies animated by spirits or genii that govern them, was represented on many of the monuments, usually clad in blue or yellow, her garments sprinkled with stars and accompanied by the sun, moon and five planets. She was the type of Wisdom, and they of the Seven Planetary Spirits of the Gnostics, that with her presided over and governed the sublunary world.
These emblems reproduced in this Degree, unknown for a hundred years to those who have practised it, refer to these old doctrines. The lamb, the yellow hangings strewed with stars, the seven columns, candlesticks and seals, all recall them to us.
The Lion was the symbol of ATHOM-RE, the Great God of Upper Egypt, the Hawk of RA or PHRE, the Eagle of MENDES, the Bull of APIS; and three of these are seen under the platform on which our altar stands.
The first HERMES was the INTELLIGENCE or WORD of God. Moved with compassion for a race living without law, and wishing to teach them that they sprang from His bosom and to point out to them the way that they should go (the books which the first Hermes had written on the mysteries of divine science in the sacred characters unknown to those who lived after the flood) God sent to man OSIRIS and ISIS, accompanied by THOTH, the incarnation or terrestrial repetition of the first HERMES, who taught men the arts, science, and the ceremonies of religion, and then ascended to Heaven or the Moon. OSIRIS was the Principle of Good. TYPHON, like AHRIMAN, was the principle and source of all that is evil in the moral and physical order. Like the Satan of Gnosticism, he was confounded with matter.
From Egypt or Persia the new Platonists borrowed the idea, and the Gnostics received it from them, that man, in his terrestrial career, is successively under the influence of the Moon, of Mercury, of Venus, of the Sun, of Mars, of Jupiter, and of Saturn, until he finally reaches the Elysian Fields: an idea again symbolised in the Seven Seals.
The Jews of Syria and Judea were the direct precursors of Gnosticism, and in their doctrines were ample oriental elements. These Jews had had with the Orient, at two different periods, intimate relations familiarising them with the doctrines of Asia, and especially of Chaldea [now southern Iraq Ed.] and Persia: their forced residence in Central Asia Minor under the Assyrians and Persians, and their voluntary dispersion over the whole East when subjects of the Seleucidae [the Seleucid Empire, 312-64BCE, that at its greatest extent stretched from Thrace in Europe to the borders of India Britannica.] and the Romans. Living near two-thirds of a century, and many of them long afterwards, in Mesopotamia [a region can be broadly defined to include the area that is now eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and most of Iraq. Britannica], the cradle of their race, speaking the same language, and their children reared with those of the Chaldeans, Assyrians, Medes, and Persians, and receiving from them their names (as the case of Daniel, who was called Belteshazzar, proves), they necessarily adopted many of the doctrines of their conquerors. Their descendants, as Ezra and Nehemiah show us, hardly desired to leave Persia when they were allowed to do so. They had a special jurisdiction and governors and judges taken from their own people; many of them held high office, and their children were educated with those of the highest nobles. Daniel was the friend and minister of the King, and the Chief of the College of Magi at Babylon if we may believe the book that bears his name and trust to the incidents related in its highly figurative and imaginative style. Mordecai, too, occupied a high station, no less than that of Prime Minister, and Esther his cousin was the Monarch's wife.
The Magi of Babylon were expounders of figurative writings, interpreters of Nature and of dreams, astronomers, and divines; and from their influences there arose among the Jews, after their rescue from captivity, a number of sects and a new exposition, the mystical interpretation, with all its wild fancies and infinite caprices. The Eons of the Gnostics, the Ideas of Plato, the Angels of the Jews, and the Demons of the Greeks all correspond to the Ferouers of Zoroaster [c.628-c.551BCE, old Iranian Zarathushtra, or Zarathustra, Iranian religious reformer and founder of Zoroastrianism, or Parsiism, as it is known in India. Britannica.]
A great number of Jewish families remained permanently in their new country, and one of the most celebrated of their schools was at Babylon. They were soon familiarised with the doctrine of Zoroaster, which itself was more ancient than Cyrus [Cyrus II (the Great), c.585-529BCE, liberator of the Jews exiled in Babylonia. Ed.]. From the system of the Zend-Avesta they borrowed, and subsequently gave large development to, everything that could be reconciled with their own faith, and these additions to the old doctrines were soon spread by the constant intercourse of commerce into Syria and Palestine.
Still he is, strictly speaking, the Fourth Being. He had a Ferouer, a pre-existing Soul (in the language of Plato, a type or ideal); and it is said of him that he existed from the beginning in the primitive Light. But that Light being but an element and his Ferouer a type, he is in ordinary language the First-born of ZEROUANE-AKHERENE, Primitive Light. Behold again THE WORD of Masonry; the Man, on the Tracing Board of this Degree; the LIGHT towards which all Masons travel.
He created after his own image six Genii called Amshaspands who surround his Throne, are his organs of communication with inferior spirits and men, transmit to him their prayers, solicit for them his favours, and serve them as models of purity and perfection. Thus we have the Demiourgos of Gnosticism and the six Genii that assist him. [But see also Bible Mystery and Bible Meaning, Chapter 1 re "Demiurge" Ed]
The names of these Amshaspands are Bahman, Ardibehest, Schariver, Sapandomad, Khordad, and Amerdad.
The fourth, the Holy Sapandomad, created the first man and woman.
Then Ormuzd created 28 Izeds, of whom MITHRAS is the chief. They watch, with Ormuzd and the Amshaspands, over the happiness, purity and preservation of the world, which is under their government; and they are also models for mankind and interpreters of men's prayers. With Mithras and Ormuzd, they make a pleroma (or complete number) of 30 corresponding to the 30 Eons of the Gnostics and to the ogdoade, dodecade and decade of the Egyptians. Mithras was the Sun-God invoked with Ormuzd and, becoming the object of a special worship, soon confounded with and eclipsing Ormuzd himself.
The third order of pure spirits is more numerous. They are the Ferouers, the THOUGHTS of Ormuzd, or the IDEAS which he conceived before proceeding to the creation of things. They too are superior to men, protect them during their life on earth, and will purify them from evil at their resurrection. They are their tutelary genii from the fall to the complete regeneration.
AHRIMAN, second-born of the Primitive Light, emanated from it pure, like Ormuzd; but, proud and ambitious, yielded to jealousy of the First-born. For his hatred and pride, the Eternal condemned him to dwell for 12,000 years in that part of space where no ray of light reaches, the black empire of Darkness. In that period, the struggle between Light and Darkness, Good and Evil, will be terminated.
Ahriman scorned to submit and took the field against Ormuzd. To the good spirits created by his brother, he opposed an innumerable army of Evil Ones. To the seven Amshaspands he opposed seven Archdevs, attached to the seven planets; to the Izeds and Ferouers an equal number of devs, which brought the world all moral and physical evils. Hence Poverty, Maladies, Impurity, Envy, Chagrin, Drunkenness, Falsehood, Calumny, and their horrible array.
The image of Ahriman was the Dragon, confounded by the Jews with Satan and the Serpent-Tempter.
After a reign of 3,000 years, Ormuzd had created the Material World in 6 periods, calling successively into existence the Light, Water, Earth, plants, animals, and Man. Ahriman concurred in creating the earth and water, for darkness was already an element and Ormuzd could not exclude its Master. So also the two concurred in producing Man. Ormuzd produced by his Will and Word a Being that was the type and source of universal life for everything that exists under Heaven. He placed in Man a pure principle of Life, proceeding from the Supreme Being. But Ahriman destroyed that pure principle in the form wherewith it was clothed; and when Ormuzd had made of its recovered and purified essence the first man and woman, Ahriman seduced and tempted them with wine and fruits, the woman being the first to yield.
Often, during the three latter periods of 3,000 years each, Ahriman and Darkness are, and are to be, triumphant. But the pure souls are assisted by the Good Spirits; the Triumph of Good is decreed by the Supreme Being, and the period of that triumph will infallibly arrive. When the world shall be most afflicted with the evils poured out upon it by the spirits of perdition, three Prophets will come to bring relief to mortals. SOSIOSCH, the principal of the three, will regenerate the earth and restore it to its primitive beauty, strength, and purity. He will judge the good and the wicked. After the universal resurrection of the good, he will conduct them to a home of everlasting happiness. Ahriman, his evil demons, and all wicked men will also be purified in a torrent of melted metal. The law of Ormuzd will reign everywhere; all men will be happy; all, enjoying unalterable bliss, will sing with Sosiosch the praises of the Supreme Being.
These doctrines, the details of which were sparingly borrowed by the Jews, were much more fully adopted by the Gnostics, who taught the restoration of all things, their return to their original pure condition, the happiness of those to be saved, and their admission to the feast of Heavenly Wisdom.
The doctrines of Zoroaster came originally from Bactria, an Indian Province of Persia. Naturally, therefore, it would include Hindu or Buddhist elements as it did. The fundamental idea of Buddhism was matter subjugating the Intelligence, and Intelligence freeing itself from that slavery. Perhaps something came to Gnosticism from China. "Before the chaos which preceded the birth of Heaven and Earth", says Lao-Tsu, "a single Being existed, immense and silent, immovable and ever active the mother of the Universe. I know not Its name: but I designate It by the word Reason. Man has his type and model in the Earth; Earth in Heaven; Heaven in Reason; and Reason in Itself." Here again are the Ferouers, the Ideas, the Eons the REASON or INTELLIGENCE, SILENCE, WORD, and WISDOM of the Gnostics: Ennoia, Sigι, Logos, and Sophia.
They styled themselves Interpreters, a name indicating their claim to the exclusive possession of the true meaning of the Holy Writings by virtue of the oral tradition which Moses had received on Mount Sinai and which successive generations of Initiates had transmitted unaltered, so they claimed, to them. Their very costume, their belief in the influences of the stars and in the transmigration of souls, their system of angels, and their astronomy, were all foreign.
Sadduceeism arose merely from an opposition, essentially Jewish, to those foreign teachings, and to that mixture of doctrines adopted by the Pharisees which contributed to the popular creed.
They were less distinguished by metaphysical speculations than by simple meditations and moral practices. But as the latter always partook of the Zoroastrian principle that it was necessary to free the soul from the trammels and influences of matter, this led to a system of abstinence and maceration entirely opposed to the ancient Hebraic ideas, favourable as they were to physical pleasures. In general, the life and manners of these mystical associations as Philo and Josephus describes them, and particularly their prayers at sunrise, seem the image of what the Zend-Avesta prescribes to the faithful adorer of Ormuzd, and some of their observances cannot otherwise be explained.
The Therapeuts resided in Egypt in the neighbourhood of Alexandria, and the Essenes in Palestine in the vicinity of the Dead Sea. But there was nevertheless a striking coincidence in their ideas readily explained by attributing it to foreign influence. The Jews of Egypt, under the influence of the School of Alexandria, endeavoured in general to make their doctrines harmonise with the traditions of Greece, and thence came in the doctrines of the Therapeuts, as stated by Philo, the many analogies between the Pythagorean and Orphic ideas on one side and those of Judaism on the other; while the Jews of Palestine, having less communication with Greece or condemning its teachings, rather imbibed the oriental doctrines which they drank in at the source and with which their relations with Persia made them familiar. This attachment was particularly shown in the Kabbala, which belonged to Palestine rather than to Egypt though as extensively known in the latter, and furnished the Gnostics with some of their most striking theories.
It is a significant fact that, while Christ spoke often of the Pharisees and Sadducees, he never once mentioned the Essenes between whose doctrines and his there was so great a resemblance and, in many points, so perfect an identity. Indeed, they are not named nor even distinctly alluded to anywhere in the New Testament.
John [the Baptist Ed.], the son of a Priest who ministered in the Temple at Jerusalem and whose mother was of the family of Aaron, was in the deserts until the day of his showing unto Israel. He drank neither wine nor strong drink. Clad in hair-cloth with a girdle of leather and feeding upon such food as the desert afforded, he preached in the country about Jordan the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins, that is, the necessity of repentance and reformation. He taught to the people charity and liberality; to the publicans, justice, equity, and fair dealing; to the soldiery, peace, truth, and contentment, to do violence to none, and to be content with their pay. He inculcated the necessity of a virtuous life and the folly of trusting to their descent from Abraham.
He denounced both Pharisees and Sadducees as a generation of vipers, threatened with the anger of God. He baptised those that confessed their sins. He preached in the desert, and therefore in the country where the Essenes lived, professing the same doctrines. He was imprisoned before Christ began to preach. Matthew mentions him without preface or explanation as if, apparently, his history was too well known to need any. "In those days", he says, "came John the Baptist, preaching in the wilderness of Judea." [Matt. 3:1-12; Mark 1:2-8; Luke 3:1-20 Ed] His disciples frequently fasted, for we find them with the Pharisees coming to Jesus to enquire why his disciples did not fast as often as they; and he did not denounce them, as his habit was to denounce the Pharisees, but answered them kindly and gently. [Matt. 9:14-15; Mark 2:18-22; Luke 5:33-39 Ed.]
From his prison, John sent two of his disciples to inquire of Christ: "Art thou he that is to come, or do we look for another?" Christ referred them to his miracles as an answer, and declared to the people that John was a prophet, and more than a prophet, and that no greater man had ever been born: but that the humblest Christian was his superior. He declared him to be Elias, who was to come. [Matt. 11:2-19; Luke 7:18-23 Ed.]
John had denounced to Herod [Herod Antipas, 21BCE-39CE, tetrarch of Galilee Ed.] his marriage with his brother's wife as unlawful; and for this he was imprisoned, and finally executed, to gratify her. His disciples buried him, and Herod thought he had risen from the dead and appeared again in the person of Christ. [Matt. 14:1-12; Mark 6:14-29; Luke 9:7-9 Ed.] The people all regarded John as a prophet, and Christ silenced the Priests and Elders by asking them whether he was inspired. They feared to excite the anger of the people by saying that he was not. Christ declared that he came "in the way of righteousness"; and that the lower classes believed him, though the Priests and Pharisees did not.
Thus John, who was often consulted by Herod and to whom that monarch showed great deference and was often governed by his advice, whose doctrine prevailed very extensively among the people and publicans, taught some creed older than Christianity. That is plain; and it is equally plain that the very large body of the Jews that adopted his doctrines were neither Pharisees nor Sadducees, but the humble common people. They must, therefore, have been Essenes. It is plain, too, that Christ applied for baptism as a sacred rite, well known and long practised. It was becoming to him, he said, to fulfil all righteousness.
Translating this from the symbolic and figurative language into the true ordinary sense of the Greek text, it reads thus: "And a certain Jew named Apollos, an Alexandrian by birth, an eloquent man and of extensive learning, came to Ephesus. He had learned in the mysteries the true doctrine in regard to God; and, being a zealous enthusiast, he spoke and taught diligently the truths in regard to the Deity, having received no other baptism than that of John." He knew nothing in regard to Christianity, for he had resided in Alexandria and had just then come to Ephesus; being, probably, a disciple of Philo, and a Therapeut.
"That, in all times", says St Augustine, "is the Christian religion, which to know and follow is the most sure and certain health, called according to that name but not according to the thing itself of which it is the name; for the thing itself, which is now called the Christian religion, really was known to the Ancients, nor was wanting at any time from the beginning of the human race until the time Christ came in the flesh; from whence the true religion, which had previously existed, began to be called Christian; and this in our days is the Christian religion, not as having been wanting in former times but as having, in later times, received this name."
The Wandering or Itinerant Jews or Exorcists, who assumed to employ the Scared name in exorcising evil spirits, were no doubt Therapeuts or Essenes.
This faith, taught by John, and so nearly Christianity, could have been nothing but the doctrine of the Essenes; and there can be no doubt that John belonged to that sect. The place where he preached, his macerations and frugal diet, all prove it conclusively. There was no other sect to which he could have belonged, certainly none so numerous as his, except the Essenes.
We find, from the two letters written by Paul to the brethren at Corinth, that City of Luxury and Corruption, that there were contenders among them. Rival sects had already, about the 57th year of our era, reared their banners there as followers, some of Paul, some of Apollos, and some of Cephas. [1 Cor. 1:11,12; 3:4-6,21-22 Ed]. Some of them denied the resurrection. Paul urged them to adhere to the doctrines taught by himself, and had sent Timothy to them to bring them afresh to their recollection. [1 Cor. 15:1-58; 16:10 Ed]
According to Paul, Christ was to come again. He was to put an end to all other Principles and Powers, and finally to Death, and then he himself once more merged in God, who should then be All in all.
Whatever they said was firmer than an oath, but they avoided swearing and esteemed it worse than perjury. They were simple in their diet and mode of living, bore torture with fortitude, and despised death. They cultivated the science of medicine and were very skilful. They deemed it a good omen to dress in white robes. They had their own courts and passed righteous judgments. They kept the Sabbath more rigorously than the Jews.
Their chief towns were Engaddi, near the Dead Sea, and Hebron. Engaddi was about 30 miles south-east from Jerusalem, and Hebron about 20 miles south of that city. Josephus [born AD 37/38, Jerusalem, died AD 100,Rome, original name Joseph Ben Matthias; Jewish priest, scholar, and historian who wrote valuable works on the Jewish revolt of 6670 and on earlier Jewish history. Britannica.] and Eusebius [Eusebius of Caesarea, c, 264-340CE, known as 2the Father of Church History". Ed.] speak of them as an ancient sect, and they were no doubt the first among the Jews to embrace Christianity with whose faith and doctrine their own tenets had so many points of resemblance, and were indeed in great measure the same. Pliny [probably Pliny the Younger, c.62-113CE Ed.] regarded them as a very ancient people.
In their devotions they turned towards the rising sun, as the Jews generally did towards the Temple. But they were no idolaters, for they observed the law of Moses with scrupulous fidelity. They held all things in common and despised riches, their wants being supplied by the administration of Curators or Stewards. The Tetractys [see also Symbols Ed.], composed of round dots instead of jods, was revered among them. This being a Pythagorean symbol, it evidently shows their connection with the school of Pythagoras, but their tenets more resemble those of Confucius [551-479BCE, literary name Chung-ni, China's most famous teacher, philosopher, and political theorist. Britannica] and Zoroaster, and probably were adopted while they were prisoners in Persia which explains their turning towards the sun in prayer.
Their demeanour was sober and chaste. They submitted to the superintendence of governors whom they appointed over themselves. The whole of their time was spent in labour, meditation, and prayer; and they were most sedulously attentive to every call of justice and humanity, and every moral duty. They believed in the unity of God. They supposed the souls of men to have fallen, by a disastrous fate, from the regions of purity and light into the bodies which they occupy, during the continuance of which they considered them confined as in a prison. Therefore they did not believe in the resurrection of the body, but in that of the soul only. They believed in a future state of rewards and punishments; and they disregarded the ceremonies or external forms enjoined in the law of Moses to be observed in the worship of God, holding that the words of that lawgiver were to be understood in a mysterious and recondite sense and not according to the literal meaning. They offered no sacrifices except at home; and by meditation they endeavoured, as far as possible, to isolate the soul from the body and carry it back to God.
Eusebius broadly admits "that the ancient Therapeutae were Christians, and that their ancient writings were our Gospels and Epistles".
The Essenes were of the Eclectic Sect of Philosophers, and held Plato in the highest esteem; they believed that true philosophy, the greatest and most salutary gift of God to mortals, was scattered in various portions through all the different Sects, and that it was consequently the duty of every wise man to gather it from the several corners where it lay dispersed, and to employ it, thus reunited, in destroying the dominion of impiety and vice.
The great festivals of the Solstices were observed in a distinguished manner by the Essenes, as would naturally be supposed from the fact that they reverenced the Sun, not as a God, but as a symbol of light and fire, the fountain of which the Orientals supposed God to be. They lived in continence and abstinence, and had establishments similar to the monasteries of the early Christians.
The writings of the Essenes were full of mysticism, parables, enigmas, and allegories. They believed in the esoteric and exoteric meanings of the Scriptures and, as we have already said, they had a warrant for that in the Scriptures themselves. They found it in the Old Testament, as the Gnostics found it in the New. The Christian writers, and even Christ himself, recognised it as a truth that all Scriptures had an inner and an outer meaning. Thus in one of the Gospels, we find it said as follows: "Unto you is it given to know the mystery of the Kingdom of God; but unto men that are without, all these things are done in parables; that seeing, they may see and not perceive, and hearing, they may hear and not understand ... And the disciples came and said unto him, Why speakest thou the truth in parables? He answered and said unto them, Because it is given unto you to know the mysteries of the Kingdom of Heaven, but to them it is not given".
Paul, in the 4th Chapter of his Epistle to the Galatians, speaking of the simplest facts of the Old Testament, asserts that they are an allegory. In the 3rd Chapter of the 2nd Letter to the Corinthians, he declares himself a minister of the New Testament, appointed by God: "Not of the letter, but of the spirit; for the letter killeth." Origen [c.185-254CE, theologian of the early Greek church Britannica.] and St Gregory [probably St Gregory of Nyssa, c. 335-394CE. Philosophical theologian and mystic, leader of the orthodox party in the 4th-century Christian controversies over the doctrine of the Trinity. Primarily a scholar, he wrote many theological, mystical, and monastic works in which he balanced Platonic and Christian traditions. Britannica] held that the Gospels were not to be taken in their literal sense; and Athanius [Saint Athanasius, c.293-373CE, Patriarch of Alexandria and Primate of Egypt. Ed.] admonishes us that "Should we understand sacred writ according to the letter, we should fall into the most enormous blasphemies".
Eusebius said, "those who preside over the Holy Sepulchres, philosophise over them, and expound their literal sense by allegory".
In the Indian doctrine, not only is the Supreme Being the real cause of all, but He is the only real Existence: all the rest is illusion. In the Kabbala, as in the Persian and Gnostic doctrines, He is the Supreme Being unknown to all, the Unknown Father. The world is His revelation and subsists only in Him. His attributes are reproduced there with different modifications and in different degrees, so that the Universe is His Holy Splendour: it is but His Mantle, but it must be revered in silence. All beings have emanated from the Supreme Being. The nearer a being is to Him, the more perfect it is; the more remote in the scale, the less its purity.
A ray of light, shot from the Deity, is the cause and principle of all that exists. It is at once Father and Mother of All, in the sublimest sense. It penetrates everything, and without it nothing can exist for an instant. From this double Force, designated by the two first letters of the word I.H.U.H. [Pike's translation of the Hebrew letters Yod Hι Vau Hι, representing the Deity. See also "The Sacred Name". Ed.] emanated the FIRSTBORN of God, the Universal FORM, in which are contained all beings, the Persian and Platonic Archetype of things, united with the Infinite by the primitive ray of Light.
This First-Born is the Creative Agent, Conservator and animating Principle of the Universe. It is THE LIGHT OF LIGHT. It possesses the three Primitive Forces of the Divinity, LIGHT, SPIRIT, and LIFE. As it has received what it gives, Light and Life, it is equally considered as the generative and conceptive Principle, the Primitive Man, ADAM KADMON. As such, it has revealed itself in ten emanations or Sephiroth, which are not ten different beings, nor even beings at all, but sources of life, vessels of Omnipotence, and types of Creation. They are Sovereignty, Wisdom, Prudence, Magnificence, Sternness, Beauty, Victory, Glory, Permanency, and Empire. These are attributes of God; and this idea that God reveals Himself by His attributes, and that the human mind cannot perceive or discern God Himself in His works but only His mode of manifesting Himself, is a profound Truth.
To each of these attributes was given one of the most sacred names of the Supreme Being. Wisdom they termed JEH; Prudence, IHUH; Magnificence, EL; Sternness, ELOHIM; Victory and Glory, ZABAOTH; and Empire, ADONAI. Sovereignty was also styled OR, which is the AUR of the Sabaeans' system, that is, LIGHT.
Wisdom was also called NOUS and LOGOS, INTELLECT or the WORD. Prudence, source of the oil of anointing, responds to the Holy Ghost of the Christian Faith.
Beauty is represented by green and yellow. Victory is IHUH-ZABAOTH, the column of the right hand, the column Jachin; Glory is the column Boaz on the left hand. And thus our symbols appear again in the Kabbala. And again the LIGHT, the object of our labours, appears as the creative power of Deity. The circle, also, was the special symbol of the first of the Sephiroth.
We do not further follow the Kabbala, its four Worlds of Spirits, Aziluth, Briah, Jezirah, and Asiah, or of emanation, creation, formation, and fabrication, one inferior to and one emerging from the other, the superior always enveloping the inferior; its doctrine that, in all that exists, there is nothing purely material; that all comes from God, and in all He proceeds by irradiation; that everything subsists by the Divine ray that penetrates creation; that all is united by the Spirit of God, which is the Life of life, so that all is God; the Existences that inhabit the four worlds, inferior to each other in proportion to their distance from the Great King of Light; the contest between the good and evil Angels and Principles, to endure until the Eternal Himself comes to end it and re-establish the primitive harmony; the four distinct parts of the Soul of Man; and the migrations of impure souls until they are sufficiently purified to share with the Spirits of Light the contemplation of the Supreme Being whose Splendour fills the Universe.
Everything emanates from a Single Principle and a Primitive Love, which is the Moving Power of All and governs all. Light, by its union with Spirit, whereof it is but the vehicle or symbol, is the Life of everything and penetrates everything. It should therefore be respected and honoured everywhere, for everywhere it governs and controls.
The Chaldaic and Jerusalem paraphrasts endeavoured to render the phrase IHUH-DEBAR, the Word of God, a personality wherever they met with it. The phrase "And God created man" is, in the Jerusalem Targum [(Aramaic: Translation, or Interpretation), any of several translations of the Hebrew Bible or portions of it into the Aramaic language. The word originally indicated a translation of the Old Testament in any language but later came to refer specifically to an Aramaic translation. Britannica.], "And the Word of IHUH created man".
So in Geneses 28:20-21, where Jacob says: if God (IHIH ALHIM) will be with me ... then shall IHUH be my ALHIM (UHIH IHUH LI LALHIM); and this stone shall be God's House (IHIH BITH ALHIM). Oukelos paraphrases it, "If the Word of IHUH will be my help ... then the Word of IHUH shall be my God".
So, in Gen. 3:8, for "The Voice of the Lord God", we have "The voice of the Word of IHUH".
In Wisdom 9:1, we have "O God of my Fathers and Lord of Mercy! Who hast made all things with Thy Word..."; and in Wisdom 18:15: "Thine Almighty Word leaped down from Heaven".
Philo speaks of the Word as being the same with God. So in several places, he calls it the Second Divinity; the Image of God; the Divine Word that made all things; the substitute of God; and the like.
Thus, when John commenced to preach, the Priests and Philosophers of the East and West had for ages agitated the great questions concerning the eternity of creation of matter; immediate or intermediate creation of the Universe by the Supreme God; the origin, object, and final extinction of evil; the relations between the intellectual and material worlds and between God and man; and the creation, fall, redemption, and restoration of man to his first estate.
Thus Cerinthus of Ephesus [fl. 100CE, Christian heretic whose errors, according to the theologian Irenaeus, led the apostle John to write his New Testament Gospel. Britannica.], with most of the Gnostics, Philo, the Kabbala, the Zend-Avesta, the Puranas [in Hindu sacred literature, any of a number of popular encyclopaedic collections of myth, legend, and genealogy, varying greatly as to date and origin. Britannica.], and all the Orient, deemed the distance and antipathy between the Supreme Being and the material world too great to attribute to the former the creation of the latter. Below, and emanating from or created by the Ancient of Days, the Central Light, the Beginning or First Principle, one, two or more Principles, Existences or Intellectual Beings were imagined, and to one or more of whom (without any immediate creative act on the part of the Great Immovable, Silent Deity) the immediate creation of the material and mental universe was due.
We have already spoken of many of the speculations on this point. To some, the world was created by the LOGOS or WORD, first manifestation of or emanation from the Deity. To others, the beginning of creation was by the emanation of a ray of LIGHT, creating the principle of Light and Life. The Primitive THOUGHT, creating the inferior Deities, a succession of INTELLIGENCES, the Iynges of Zoroaster, his Amshaspands, Izeds, and Ferouers, the Ideas of Plato, the Aions of the Gnostics, the Angels of the Jews, the Nous, the Demiourgos, the DIVINE REASON, the Powers or Forces of Philo, and the Elohim, Forces, or Superior Gods of the ancient legend with which Genesis begins to these and other intermediaries the creation was owing. No restraints were laid on the Fancy or the Imagination. The veriest Abstractions became Existences and Realities. The attributes of God, personified, became Powers, Spirits, Intelligences.
God was the Light of Light, Divine Fire, the Abstract Intellectuality, the Root or Germ of the Universe. Simon Magus [Simon the Magician, fl. 1st century CE. See Acts 8:9-24. Ed.], founder of the Gnostic faith, and many of the early Judaizing Christians, admitted that the manifestations of the Supreme Being as Father or Jehovah, SON or CHRIST, and HOLY SPIRIT, were only so many different modes of Existence or Forces of the same God. To others they were, as the multitude of Subordinate Intelligences, real and distinct beings.
The oriental imagination revelled in the creation of these Inferior Intelligences, Powers of Good and Evil, and Angels. We have spoken of those imagined by the Persians and the Kabbalists. In the Talmud, every star, every country, every town, and almost every tongue has a Prince of Heaven as its Protector. JEHUEL is the guardian of fire and MICHAEL or water. Seven spirits assist each, those of fire being SERAPHIEL, GABRIEL, NURIEL, TAMMAEL, TCHIMSCHIEL, HADARNIEL, and SARNIEL. These seven are represented by the square columns of this Degree, while the columns of Jachin and Boaz represent the angels of fire and water. But the columns are not representatives of these alone.
To Basilides [fl. 2nd century CE in Alexandria, founder of a school of Gnosticism Britannica.], God was without name, uncreated, at first containing and concealing in Himself the Plenitude of His Perfections; and when these are by Him displayed and manifested, there result as many particular Existences, all analogous to Him, and still and always Him. To the Essenes and the Gnostics, the East and the West both devised this faith: that the Ideas, Conceptions, or Manifestation of the Deity were so many Creations, so many Beings, all God, nothing without Him, but more than what we now understand by the word ideas. They emanated from and were again merged in God. They had a kind of middle existence between our modern ideas and the intelligences or ideas, elevated to the rank of genii, of the oriental mythology.
These personified attributes of Deity, in the theory of Basilides, were the First-born (Nous or Mind): from it emanates Logos (or THE WORD): from it Intellect; from it Wisdom (Sophia); from it Power (Dunamis); and from it Righteousness: to which latter the Jews gave the name of Eirene (Peace or Calm), the essential characteristic of Divinity, and harmonious effect of all His perfections. The whole number of successive emanations was 365, expressed by the Gnostics in Greek letters as Abraxas, designating God as manifested, or the aggregate of His manifestations, but not the Supreme and Secret God Himself. These 365 Intelligences compose altogether the Fullness or Plenitude of the Divine Emanations.
With the Ophites, a sect of the Gnostics, there were seven inferior spirits (inferior to Ialdabaoth, the Demiourgos or Actual Creator): Michael, Suriel, Raphael, Gabriel, Thauthabaoth, Erataoth, and Athaniel, the genii of the stars called the Bull, the Dog, the Lion, the Bera, the Serpent, the Eagle, and the Ass that formerly figured in the constellation Cancer, and symbolised respectively by those animals; as Ialdabaoth, Iao, Adonai. Eloi, Orai and Astaphai were the genii of Saturn, the Moon, the Sun, Jupiter, Venus, and Mercury.
The WORD appears in all these creeds. It is the Ormuzd of Zoroaster, the En Soph of the Kabbala, the Nous of Platonism and Philoism, and the Sophia or Demiourgos of the Gnostics.
And all these creeds, while admitting these different manifestations of the Supreme Being, held that His identity was immutable and permanent. That was Plato's distinction between the Being always the same and the perpetual flow of things incessantly changing, the Genesis.
To many there were two Principles: the Unknown Father, or Supreme and Eternal God, living in the centre of Light, happy in the perfect purity of His Being; the other, eternal Matter, that inert, shapeless, darksome mass, which they considered as the source of all evils, the mother and dwelling-place of Satan.
To Philo and the Platonists, there was a Soul of the World, creating visible things and active in them as the agent of the Supreme Intelligence, realising therein the ideas communicated to Him by that Intelligence, and which sometimes excel His conceptions, but which He executes without comprehending them.
The Christ of the Apocalypse, First-born of Creation and of the Resurrection, is invested with the characteristics of the Ormuzd and Sosiosch of the Zend-Avesta, the En Soph of the Kabbala, and the Carpistes of the Gnostics. The idea that the true Initiates and Faithful become Kings and Priests is at once Persian, Jewish, Christian, and Gnostic. And the definition of the Supreme Being, that He is at once Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, He that was, is, and is to come, i.e. Time Illimitable, is Zoroaster's definition of Zerouane-Akherene.
The depths of Satan which no man can measure; his triumph, for a time, by fraud and violence; his being chained by an angel; his reprobation and his precipitation into a sea of metal; his names of The Serpent and the Dragon; the whole conflict of the Good Spirits or celestial armies against the bad: are so many ideas and designations found alike in the Zend-Avesta, the Kabbala, and the Gnosis.
We even find in the Apocalypse that singular Persian idea which regards some of the lower animals as so many Devs or vehicles of Devs.
The guardianship of the earth by a good angel, the renewing of the earth and heavens, and the final triumph of pure and holy men are the same victory of Good over Evil for which the whole Orient looked.
The gold and white raiment of the twenty-four Elders are, as in the Persian faith, the signs of a lofty perfection and divine purity.
But one grand idea ever emerged and stood prominent and unchangeable over the weltering chaos of confusion. God is great, and good, and wise. Evil and pain and sorrow are temporary, and for wise and beneficent purposes. They must be consistent with God's goodness, purity, and infinite perfection; and there must be a mode of explaining them, if we could but find it out as in all ways we will endeavour to do. Ultimately, Good will prevail and Evil be overthrown. God alone can do this, and He will do it by an Emanation from Himself, assuming the Human form and redeeming the world.
Behold the object, the end, the result, of the great speculations and logomachies [arguments about words Ed.] of antiquity: the ultimate annihilation of evil and restoration of Man to his first estate by a Redeemer, a Christos, the incarnate Word, Reason or Power of Deity.
This Redeemer is the Word or Logos, the Ormuzd of Zoroaster, the En Soph of the Kabbala, the Nous of Platonism and Philoism: he that was in the Beginning with God, and was God, and by whom everything was made. That He was looked for by all the People of the East is abundantly shown by the Gospel of John and the Letters of Paul, wherein scarcely anything seemed necessary to be said in proof that such a Redeemer was to come; but all the energies of the writers are devoted to showing that Jesus was that Christos whom all the nations were expecting.
In this Degree the great contest between good and evil in anticipation of the appearance and advent of the Word or Redeemer is symbolised; and the mysterious teachings of the Essenes and the Kabbalists. Of the practices of the former we gain but glimpses in the ancient writers but we know that, as their doctrines were taught by John the Baptist, they greatly resembled those of greater purity and more perfection taught by Jesus; and that not only Palestine was so full of John's disciples that the Priests and Pharisees did not dare to deny John's inspiration, but that his doctrine had extended into Asia Minor and had made converts in luxurious Ephesus, as it also had in Alexandria in Egypt, and that they readily embraced the Christian faith of which they had not before even heard.
Those old controversies have died away and the old faiths have faded into oblivion. But Masonry still survives, vigorous and strong as when philosophy was taught in the schools of Alexandria and under the Portico, teaching the same old truths as the Essenes taught by the shores of the Red Sea and as John the Baptist preached in the Desert: truths imperishable as the Deity and undeniable as Light. Those truths were gathered by the Essenes from the doctrines of the Orient and the Occident, from the Zend-Avesta and the Vedas, from Plato and Pythagoras, from India, Persia, Phoenicia, and Syria, from Greece and Egypt, and from the Holy Books of the Jews. Hence we are called Knights of the East and West, because their doctrines came from both. And these doctrines, the wheat sifted from the chaff, the Truth separated from Error, Masonry has garnered up in her heart of hearts and, through the fires of persecution and the storms of calamity, has brought them and delivered then unto us. That God is One, immutable, unchangeable, infinitely just and good; that Light will finally overcome Darkness, Good conquer Evil, and Truth be victor over Error: these, rejecting all the wild and useless speculations of the Zend-Avesta, the Kabbala, the Gnostics, and the Schools, are the religion and Philosophy of Masonry.
Those speculations and fancies it is useful to study, that knowing in what worthless and unfruitful investigations the mind may engage, you may the more value and appreciate the plain, simple, sublime, universally acknowledged truths which have in all ages been the Light by which Masons have been guided on their way, the wisdom and strength that like imperishable columns have sustained and will continue to sustain its Glorious and Magnificent Temple.