Setting the Scene
Pain and Pleasure
Cycles of Life
Knowledge as Recollection
The Nature of the Soul
Interlude of Disquiet
Haters of Ideas
More About the Soul
The Soul a Harmony?
Is the Soul Truly Imperishable?
Care of the Soul
The Nature of Earth and the Underworld
Last Will and Testament
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Socrates had been found guilty on a charge of impiety and been sentenced by the Athenian judges to death by drinking poison. Some time later, Phaedo, who was present, recalls the events of Socrates' last day at the request of Echecrates of Phlius, another city in Greece.
The characters who feature in the conversation are Socrates himself, a Prison Attendant, and Socrates' friends Apollodorus, Simmias, Cebes, and Crito.
As the book is relatively short and has been translated into beautifully clear English, I have refrained from breaking it down into chapters, but have followed my usual practice of providing hyperlink sub-headings to help the reader's navigation. From the Encyclopaedia Britannica I learn that the translator, Benjamin Jowett (1817-1893), was "a British classical scholar, considered to be one of the greatest teachers of the 19th century. He was renowned for his translations of Plato and as an outstanding tutor of great influence who became master of Balliol College, Oxford".
The student who reads with close attention cannot fail to be impressed by the flashes of humour as well as the range and cogency of the arguments Socrates employs throughout this final "tutorial" in which he discusses with friends and disciples the most important questions of life and death. The geological theory Socrates puts forward near the end of the book has a surprisingly modern flavour.
On the last morning the meeting was earlier than usual; this was owing to our having heard the previous evening that the sacred ship had arrived from Delos, and therefore we agreed to meet very early at the accustomed place. On our going to the prison, the jailer who answered the door, instead of admitting us, came out and bade us wait and he would call us. "For the eleven", he said, "Are now with Socrates; they are taking off his chains, and giving orders that he is to die today."
He soon returned and said that we might come in. On entering we found Socrates just released from chains, and Xanthippe, whom you know, sitting by him, and holding his child in her arms. When she saw us she uttered a cry and said, as women will: "O Socrates, this is the last time that either you will converse with your friends, or they with you".
Socrates turned to Crito and said: "Crito, let some one take her home".
Upon this, Cebes said: "I am very glad indeed, Socrates, that you mentioned the name of Aesop. For that reminds me of a question which has been asked by others, and was asked of me only the day before yesterday by Evenus the poet, and as he will be sure to ask again, you may as well tell me what I should say to him, if you would like him to have an answer. He wanted to know why you who never before wrote a line of poetry, now that you are in prison, are putting Aesop into verse, and also composing that hymn in honour of Apollo."
"Tell him, Ceres", he replied, "that I had no idea of rivalling him or his poems; which is the truth, for I knew that I could not do that. But I wanted to see whether I could purge away a scruple which I felt about certain dreams. In the course of my life I have often had intimations in dreams 'that I should make music'. The same dream came to me sometimes in one form, and sometimes in another, but always saying the same or nearly the same words: 'Make and cultivate Music', said the dream. And hitherto I had imagined that this was only intended to exhort and encourage me in the study of philosophy, which has always been the pursuit of my life, and is the noblest and best of music. The dream was bidding me do what I was already doing, in the same way that a competitor in a race is bidden by the spectators to run when he is already running. But I was not certain of this, as the dream might have meant music in the popular sense of the word, and being under sentence of death, and the festival giving me a respite, I thought that I should be safer if I satisfied the scruple, and, in obedience to the dream, composed a few verses before I departed. And first I made a hymn in honour of the god of the festival; and then considering that a poet, if he is really to be a poet or maker, should not only put words together but make stories, and as I have no invention, I took some fables of Aesop, which I had ready at hand, and turned them into verse. Tell Evenus this, and bid him be of good cheer; say that I would have him come after me if he be a wise man, and not tarry; and that today I am likely to be going, for the Athenians say that I must."
Simmias said: "What a message for such a man! Having been a frequent companion of his I should say that, as far as I know him, he will never take your advice unless he is obliged."
"Why", said Socrates. "Is not Evenus a philosopher?"
"I think that he is", said Simmias.
Here he changed his position, and put his legs off the couch on to the ground, and during the rest of the conversation he remained sitting.
"Why do you say", inquired Cebes, "that a man ought not to take his own life, but that the philosopher will be ready to follow the dying?"
Socrates replied: "And have you, Cebes and Simmias, who are acquainted with Philolaus, never heard him speak of this?"
"I never understood him, Socrates."
"My words, too, are only an echo; but I am very willing to say what I have heard; and indeed, as I am going to another place, I ought to be thinking and talking of the nature of the pilgrimage which I am about to make. What can I do better in the interval between this and the setting of the sun?"
"Then tell me, Socrates, why is suicide held not to be right? As I have certainly heard Philolaus affirm when he was staying with us at Thebes; and there are others who say the same, although none of them has ever made me understand him."
"But do your best", replied Socrates, "and the day may come when you will understand. I suppose that you wonder why, as most things which are evil may be accidentally good, this is to be the only exception (for may not death, too, be better than life in some cases?), and why, when a man is better dead, he is not permitted to be his own benefactor, but must wait for the hand of another."
"By Jupiter! Yes indeed", said Cebes laughing, and speaking in his native Doric.
"I admit the appearance of inconsistency", replied Socrates; "but there may not be any real inconsistency after all in this. There is a doctrine uttered in secret that man is a prisoner who has no right to open the door of his prison and run away; this is a great mystery which I do not quite understand. Yet I too believe that the gods are our guardians, and that we are a possession of theirs. Do you not agree?"
"Yes, I agree to that", said Cebes.
"And if one of your own possessions, an ox or an ass, for example, took the liberty of putting himself out of the way when you had given no intimation of your wish that he should die, would you not be angry with him, and would you not punish him if you could?"
"Certainly", replied Cebes.
"Then there may be reason in saying that a man should wait, and not take his own life until God summons him, as he is now summoning me."
"Yes, Socrates", said Cebes, "there is surely reason in that. And yet how can you reconcile this seemingly true belief that God is our guardian and we his possessions, with that willingness to die which we were attributing to the philosopher? That the wisest of men should be willing to leave this service in which they are ruled by the gods who are the best of rulers, is not reasonable, for surely no wise man thinks that when set at liberty he can take better care of himself than the gods take care of him. A fool may perhaps think this — he may argue that he had better run away from his master, not considering that his duty is to remain to the end, and not to run away from the good, and that there is no sense in his running away. But the wise man will want to be ever with him who is better than himself. Now this, Socrates, is the reverse of what was now said; for upon this view the wise man should sorrow and the fool rejoice at passing out of life.
The earnestness of Cebes seemed to please Socrates. "Here", said he, turning to us, "is a man who is always inquiring, and is not to be convinced all in a moment, nor by every argument."
"And in this case", added Simmias, "his objection does appear to me to have some force. For what can be the meaning of a truly wise man wanting to fly away and lightly leave a master who is better than himself. And I rather imagine that Cebes is referring to you; he thinks that you are too ready to leave us, and too ready to leave the gods who, as you acknowledge, are our good rulers."
"Yes", replied Socrates; "there is reason in that. And this indictment you think that I ought to answer as if I were in court?"
"That is what we should like", said Simmias.
"Then I must try to make a better impression upon you than I did when defending myself before the judges. For I am quite ready to acknowledge, Simmias and Cebes, that I ought to be grieved at death, if I were not persuaded that I am going to other gods who are wise and good (of this I am as certain as I can be of anything of the sort), and to men departed (though I am not so certain of this) who are better than those whom I leave behind; and therefore I do not grieve as I might have done, for I have good hope that there is yet something remaining for the dead, and as has been said of old, some far better thing for the good than for the evil."
"But do you mean to take away your thoughts with you, Socrates?" said Simmias. "Will you not communicate them to us? — the benefit is one in which we too may hope to share. Moreover, if you succeed in convincing us, that will be an answer to the charge against yourself."
"I will do my best", replied Socrates. "But you must first let me hear what Crito wants; he was going to say something to me."
"Only this, Socrates", replied Crito: — "The attendant who is to give you the poison has been telling me that you are not to talk much, and he wants me to let you know this; for that by talking, heat is increased, and this interferes with the action of the poison; those who excite themselves are sometimes obliged to drink the poison two or three times."
"Then", said Socrates, "let him mind his business, and be prepared to give the poison two or three times if necessary; that is all."
"I was almost certain that you would say that", replied Crito; "but I was obliged to satisfy him."
"Never mind him", he said.
Simmias laughed and said: "Though not in a laughing humour, I swear that I can not help laughing, when I think what the wicked world will say when they hear this. They will say that this is very true, and our people at home will agree with them in saying that the life which philosophers desire is truly death, and that they have found them out to be deserving of the death which they desire."
"And they are right, Simmias, in saying this, with the exception of the words 'they have found them out'; for they have not found out what is the nature of this death which the true philosopher desires, or how he deserves or desires death. But let us leave them and have a word with ourselves: Do we believe there is such a thing as death?"
"To be sure", replied Simmias.
"And is this anything but the separation of soul and body? And being dead is the attainment of this separation when the soul exists in herself, and is parted from the body and the body is parted from the soul — that is death?"
"Exactly: that and nothing else", he replied.
"And what would you say of another question, my friend, about which I should like to have your opinion, and the answer to which will probably throw light on our present inquiry: Do you think that the philosopher ought to care about the pleasures — if they are to be called pleasures — of eating and drinking?"
"Certainly not", answered Simmias.
"And what do you say of the pleasures of love — should he care about them?"
"By no means."
"And will he think much of the other ways of indulging the body — for example, the acquisition of costly raiment, or sandals or other adornments of the body? Instead of caring about them, does he not rather despise anything more than nature needs? What do you say?"
"I should say that the true philosopher would despise them."
"Would you not say that he is entirely concerned with the soul and not with the body? He would like, as far as he can, to be quit of the body and turn to the soul."
"That is true."
"In matter of this sort philosophers, above all other men, may be observed in every sort of way to dissever the soul from the body."
"That is true."
"Whereas, Simmias, the rest of the world are of opinion that a life which has no bodily pleasures and no part in them is not worth having; but that he who thinks nothing of bodily pleasures is almost as though he were dead."
"That is quite true."
"What again shall we say of the actual acquirement of knowledge? — is the body, if invited to share in the inquiry, a hinderer or a helper? I mean to say, have sight and hearing any truth in them? Are they not, as the poets are always telling us, inaccurate witnesses? And yet, if even they are inaccurate and indistinct, what is to be said of the other senses? — for you will allow that they [i.e. sight and hearing — Ed.] are the best of them?"
"Certainly", he replied.
"Then when does the soul attain truth? — for in attempting to consider anything in company with the body, she is obviously deceived."
"Yes, that is true."
"Then must not existence be revealed to her in thought, if at all?"
"And thought is best when the mind is gathered into herself and none of these things trouble her — neither sounds nor sights nor pain nor any pleasure, — when she has as little as possible to do with the body, and has no bodily sense or feeling, but is aspiring after being?"
"That is true."
"And in this the philosopher dishonours the body; his soul runs away from the body, and desires to be alone and by herself?"
"That is true."
"Well, but there is another thing, Simmias: Is there or is there not an absolute justice?"
"Assuredly there is."
"And an absolute beauty and an absolute good?"
"But did you ever behold any of them with your eyes?"
"Or did you ever reach them with any other bodily sense? (and I speak not of these alone, but of absolute greatness, and health, and strength, and of the essence or true nature of everything). Has the reality of them ever been perceived by you through the bodily organs? Or rather, is not the nearest approach to the knowledge of their several natures made by him who so orders his intellectual vision as to have the most exact conception of the essence of that which he considers?"
"And he attains to the knowledge of them in their highest purity who goes to each of them with the mind alone, not allowing when in the act of thought the intrusion or introduction of sight or any other sense in the company of reason, but with the very light of truth in each; he has got rid, as far as he can, of eyes and ears and of the whole body, which he conceives of only as a disturbing element, hindering the soul from the acquisition of knowledge when in company with her — is not this the sort of man who, if ever man did, is likely to attain the knowledge of existence?"
"There is admirable truth in that, Socrates", replied Simmias.
"And when they consider all this, must not true philosophers make a reflection, of which they will speak to one another in such words as these: 'We have found', they will say, 'a path of speculation which seems to bring us and the argument to the conclusion that while we are in the body, and while the soul is mingled with this mass of evil, our desire will not be satisfied, and our desire is of the truth. For the body is a source of endless trouble to us by reason of the mere requirement of food; and also is liable to diseases which overtake and impede us in the search after truth: and by filling us as full of loves, and lusts, and fears, and fancies, and idols, and every sort of folly, prevents our ever having, as people say, so much as a thought. For whence come wars, and fightings, and factions? whence but from the body and the lusts of the body? For wars are occasioned by the love of money, and money has to be acquired for the sake and in the service of the body; and in consequence of all these things the time which ought to be given to philosophy is lost. Moreover, if there is time and an inclination towards philosophy, yet the body introduces a turmoil and confusion and fear into the course of speculation, and hinders us from seeing the truth; and all experience shows that if we would have pure knowledge of anything we must be quit of the body, and the soul in herself must behold all things in themselves: then, I suppose, that we shall attain that which we desire, and of which we say that we are lovers, and that is wisdom; not while we live, but after death, as the argument shows; for if while in company with the body, the soul can not have pure knowledge, one of two things seems to follow — either knowledge is not to be attained at all, or, if at all, after death. For then, and not till then, the soul will be in herself alone and without the body. In this present life, I reckon that we make the nearest approach to knowledge when we have the least possible concern or interest in the body, and are not saturated with the bodily nature, but remain pure until the hour when God himself is pleased to release us. And then the foolishness of the body will be cleared away and we shall be pure and hold converse with other pure souls, and know of ourselves the clear light everywhere; and this is surely the light of truth. For no impure thing is allowed to approach the pure'.
"These are the sort of words, Simmias, which the true lovers of wisdom can not help saying to one another, and thinking. You will agree with me in that?"
"But if this is true, O my friend, then there is great hope that, going whither I go, I shall there be satisfied with that which has been the chief concern of you and me in our past lives. And now that the hour of departure is appointed to me, this is the hope with which I depart, and not I only, but every man who believes that he has his mind purified."
"Certainly", replied Simmias.
"And what is purification but the separation of the soul from the body, as I was saying before; the habit of the soul gathering and collecting herself into herself, out of all the courses of the body; the dwelling in her own place alone, as in another life, so also in this, as far as she can: — the release of the soul from the chains of the body?"
"Very true", he said.
"And what is that which is termed death, but this very separation and release of the soul from the body?"
"To be sure", he said.
"And the true philosophers, and they only, study and are eager to release the soul. Is not the separation and release of the soul from the body their especial study?"
"That is true."
"And, as I was saying at first, there would be a ridiculous contradiction in men studying to live as nearly as they can in a state of death, and yet repining when death comes."
"Then, Simmias, as the true philosophers are ever studying death, to them, of all men, death is the least terrible. Look at the matter in this way: — how inconsistent of them to have been always enemies of the body, and wanting to have the soul alone, and when this is granted to them, to be trembling and repining; instead of rejoicing at their departing to that place where, when they arrive, they hope to gain that which in life they loved (and this was wisdom), and at the same time to be rid of the company of their enemy.
"Many a man has been willing to go to the world below in the hope of seeing there an earthly love, or wife, or son, and conversing with them. And will he who is a true lover of wisdom, and is persuaded in like manner that only in the world below can he worthily enjoy her, still repine at death? Will he not depart with joy? Surely he will, my friend, if he be a true philosopher. For he will have a firm conviction that there only, and nowhere else, he can find wisdom in her purity. And if this be true, he would be very absurd, as I was saying, if he were to fear death."
"He would indeed", replied Simmias.
"And when you see a man who is repining at the approach of death, is not his reluctance a sufficient proof that he is not a lover of wisdom, but a lover of the body, and probably at the same time a lover of either money or power, or both?"
"That is very true", he replied.
"There is a virtue, Simmias, which is named courage. Is not that a special attribute of the philosopher?"
"Again, there is temperance. Is not the calm, and control, and disdain of the passions which even the many call temperance, a quality belonging only to those who despise the body, and live in philosophy?"
"That is not to be denied."
"For the courage and temperance of other men, if you will consider them, are really a contradiction."
"How is that, Socrates?"
"Well", he said, "you are aware that death is regarded by men in general as a great evil."
"That is true", he said.
"And do not courageous men endure death because they are afraid of yet greater evils?"
"That is true."
"Then all but the philosophers are courageous only from fear, and because they are afraid; and yet that a man should be courageous from fear, and because he is a coward, is surely a strange thing."
"And are not the temperate exactly in the same case? They are temperate because they are intemperate — which may seem to be a contradiction, but is nevertheless the sort of thing which happens with this foolish temperance. For there are pleasures which they must have, and are afraid of losing; and therefore they abstain from one class of pleasures because they are overcome by another; and whereas intemperance is defined as 'being under the dominion of pleasure', they overcome only because they are overcome by pleasure. And that is what I mean by saying that they are temperate through intemperance."
"That appears to be true."
"Yet the exchange of one fear or pleasure for another fear or pleasure or pain, which are measured like coins, the greater with the less, is not the exchange of virtue. O my dear Simmias, is there not one true coin for which all things ought to exchange? — and that is wisdom; and only in exchange for this, and in company with this, is anything truly bought or sold, whether courage or temperance, or justice. And is not all true virtue the companion of wisdom, no matter what fears or pleasures or other similar goods or evils may or may not attend her?
"But the virtue which is made up of these goods, when they are severed from wisdom and exchanged with one another, is a shadow or virtue only, nor is there any freedom or health or truth in her; but in the true exchange, there is a purging away of all these things, and temperance, and justice, and courage, and wisdom herself, are a purgation of them.
"And I conceive that the founders of the mysteries had a real meaning and were not mere triflers when they intimated in a figure long ago that he who passed unsanctified and uninitiated into the world below will live in a slough, but that he who arrives there after initiation and purification will dwell with the gods. For 'many', as they say in the mysteries, 'are thyrsus-bearers, but few are the mystics', — meaning, as I interpret the words, the true philosophers, in the number of whom I have been seeking, according to my ability, to find a place during my whole life; — whether I have sought in a right way or not, and whether I have succeeded or not, I shall truly know in a little while, if God will, when I myself arrive in the other world: that is my belief.
"And now Simmias and Cebes, I have answered those who charge me with not grieving or repining in parting from you and my masters in this world; and I am right in not repining, for I believe that I shall find other masters and friends who are as good in the world below. But all men can not receive this, and I shall be glad if my words have any more success with you than with the judges of Athenians."
"True, Cebes", said Socrates; "and shall I suggest that we talk a little of the probabilities of these things?"
"I am sure", said Cebes, "that I should greatly like to know your opinion about them."
"I reckon", said Socrates, "that no one who heard me now, not even if he were one of my old enemies, the comic poets, could accuse me of idle talking about matters in which I have no concern. Let us then, if you please, proceed with the inquiry.
"Whether the souls of men after death are or are not in the world below, is a question which may be argued in this manner: — The ancient doctrine of which I have been speaking affirms that they go from hence into the other world, and return hither, and are born from the dead. Now if this be true, and the living come from the dead, then our souls must be in the other world, for if not, how could they be born again? And this would be conclusive, if there were any real evidence that the living are only born from the dead; but if there is no evidence of this, then other arguments will have to be adduced."
"That is very true", replied Cebes.
"Then let us consider this question, not in relation to man only, but in relation to animals generally, and to plants, and to everything of which there is generation, and the proof will be easier. Are not all things which have opposites generated out of their opposites? I mean such things as good and evil, just and unjust — and there are innumerable other opposites which are generated out of opposites. And I want to show that this holds universally of all opposites; I mean to say, for example, that anything which becomes greater must become greater after being less."
"And that which becomes less must have been once greater and then become less."
"And the weaker is generated from the stronger, and the swifter from the slower."
"And the worse is from the better, and the more just is from the more unjust?"
"And is this true of all opposites? And are we convinced that all of them are generated out of opposites?"
"And in this universal opposition of all things, are there not also two intermediate processes which are ever going on, from one to the other, and back again; where there is a greater and a less there is also an intermediate process of increase and diminution, and that which grows is said to wax and that which decays to wane?"
"Yes", he said.
"And there are many other processes, such as division and composition, cooling and heating, which equally involve a passage into and out of one another. And this holds of all opposites, even though not always expressed in words — they are generated out of one another, and there is a passing or process from one to the other of them?"
"Very true", he replied.
"Well, and is there not an opposite of life, as sleep is the opposite of waking?"
"True", he said.
"And what is that?"
"Death", he answered.
"And these then are generated, if they are opposites, the one from the other, and have their two intermediate processes also?"
"Now", said Socrates, "I will analyse one of the two pairs of opposites which I have mentioned to you, and also its intermediate processes, and you shall analyse the other to me. The state of sleep is opposed to the state of waking, and out of sleeping waking is generated, and out of waking, sleeping; and the process of generation is in the one case falling asleep, and in the other waking up. Are you agreed about that?"
"Then, suppose that you analyse life and death to me in the same manner. Is not death opposed to life?"
"And they are generated one from the other?"
"What is generated from life?"
"And what from death?"
"I can only say in answer — life."
"Then the living, whether things or persons, Cebes, are generated from the dead?"
"That is clear", he replied.
"Then the inference is that our souls are in the world below?"
"That is true."
"And one of the true processes of generations is visible — for surely the act of dying is visible?"
"Surely", he said.
"And may not the other be inferred as the complement of nature, who is not to be supposed to go on one leg only? And if not, a corresponding process of generation in death must also be assigned to her?"
"Certainly", he replied.
"And what is that process?"
"And revival, if there be such a thing, is the birth of the dead into the world of the living?"
"Quite true. Then here is a new way in which we arrive at the inference that the living come from the dead, just as the dead come from the living; and if this is true, then the souls of the dead must be in some place out of which they come again. And this, as I think, has been satisfactorily proved."
"Yes, Socrates", he said; all this seems to flow necessarily out of our previous admissions."
"And that these admissions were not unfair, Cebes", he said, "may be shown, as I think, in this way: If generation were in a straight line only, and there were no compensation or circle in nature, no turn or return into one another, then you know that all things would at last have the same form and pass into the same state, and there would be no more generation of them."
"What do you mean?" he said.
"A simple thing enough, which I will illustrate by the case of sleep", he replied. "You know that if there were no compensation of sleeping and waking, the story of the sleeping Endymion [in Greek mythology, a beautiful youth who spent much of his life in perpetual sleep. — Ed.] would in the end have no meaning, because all other things would be asleep too, and he would not be thought of. Or if there were composition only, and no division of substances, then the chaos of Anaxagoras [The growth of living things, according to Anaxagoras, depends on the power of mind within the organisms that enables them to extract nourishment from surrounding substances. For this concept of mind, Anaxagoras was commended by Aristotle. Both Plato and Aristotle, however, objected that his notion of mind did not include a view that mind acts ethically — i.e., acts for the "best interests" of the Universe. — E. Britannica] would come again. And in like manner, my dear Cebes, if all things which partook of life were to die, and after they were dead remained in the form of death, and did not come to life again, all would at last die, and nothing would be alive — how could this be otherwise? For if the living spring from any others who are not the dead, and they die, must not all things at last be swallowed up in death?"
"There is no escape from that, Socrates", said Cebes; "and I think that what you say is entirely true."
"Yes", he said, "Cebes, I entirely think so too; and we are not walking in a vain imagination: but I am confident in the belief that there truly is such a thing as living again, and that the living spring from the dead, and that the souls of the dead are in existence, and that the good souls have a better portion than the evil."
"But tell me, Cebes", said Simmias, interposing, "what proofs are given of this doctrine of recollection? I am not very sure at this moment that I remember them."
"One excellent proof", said Cebes, "is afforded by questions. If you put a question to a person in a right way, he will give a true answer of himself, but how could he do this unless there were knowledge and right reason already in him? And this is most clearly shown when he is taken to a diagram or to anything of that sort."
"But if", said Socrates, "you are still incredulous, Simmias, I would ask you whether you may not agree with me when you look at the matter in another way; — I mean if you are still incredulous as to whether knowledge is recollection?"
"Incredulous, I am not", said Simmias; "but I want to have this doctrine of recollection brought to my own recollection and, from what Cebes has said, I am beginning to recollect and be convinced: but I should still like to hear what more you have to say."
"This is what I should say", he replied: — "We should agree, if I am not mistaken, that what a man recollects he must have known at some previous time."
"And what is the nature of this recollection? And, in asking this, I mean to ask, whether when a person has already seen or heard or in any way perceived anything, and he knows not only that, but something else of which he has not the same but another knowledge, we may not fairly say that he recollects that which comes into his mind. Are we agreed about that?"
"What do you mean?"
"I mean what I may illustrate by the following instance:- The knowledge of a lyre is not the same as the knowledge of a man?"
"And yet what is the feeling of lovers when they recognise a lyre, or a garment, or anything else which the beloved has been in the habit of using? Do not they, from knowing the lyre, form in the mind's eye an image of the youth to whom the lyre belongs? And this is recollection: and in the same way any one who sees Simmias may remember Cebes; and there are endless other things of the same nature."
"Yes, indeed there are — endless", replied Simmias.
"And this sort of thing", he said, "is recollection, and is most commonly a process of recovering that which has been forgotten through time and inattention."
"Very true", he said.
"Well; and may you not also from seeing the picture of a horse or a lyre remember a man? And from the picture of Simmias, you may be led to remember Cebes?"
"And in all these cases, the recollection may be derived from things either like or unlike?"
"That is true."
"And when the recollection is derived from like things, then there is sure to be another question, which is — whether the likeness of that which is recollected is in any way defective or not?"
"Very true", he said.
"And shall we proceed a step further, and affirm that there is such a thing as equality, not of wood with wood, or of stone with stone, but that, over and above this, there is equality in the abstract? Shall we affirm this?"
"Affirm, yes, and swear to it", replied Simmias, "with all the confidence in life."
"And do we know the nature of this abstract essence?"
"To be sure", he said.
"And whence did we obtain this knowledge? Did we not see equalities of material things, such as pieces of wood and stones, and gather from them the idea of an equality which is different from them? — you will admit that. Or look at the matter again in this way: — Do not the same pieces of wood or stone appear at one time equal, and at another time unequal?"
"That is certain."
"But are real equals ever unequal? Or is the idea of equality ever inequality?"
"That surely was never yet known, Socrates."
"Then these (so-called) equals are not the same with the idea of equality?"
"I should say, clearly not, Socrates."
"And yet from these equals, although differing from the idea of equality, you conceived and attained that idea?"
"Very true", he said.
"Which might be like, or might be unlike them?"
"But that makes no difference: whenever from seeing one thing you conceived another, whether like or unlike, there must surely have been an act of recollection?"
"But what would you say of equal portions of wood and stone, or other material equals? And what is the impression produced by them? Are they equals in the same sense as absolute equality? Or do they fall short of this in a measure?"
"Yes", he said, "in a very great measure too."
And must we not allow that when I or any one look at any object, and perceive that the object aims at being some other thing, but falls short of, and cannot attain to it, — he who makes this observation must have had a previous knowledge of that to which, as he says, the other, although similar, was inferior?"
"And has not this been our own case in the matter of equals and of absolute equality?"
"Then we must have known absolute equality previously to the time when we first saw the material equals, and reflected that all these apparent equals aim at this absolute equality, but fall short of it?"
"That is true."
"And we recognise also that this absolute equality has only been known, and can only be known, through the medium of sight or touch, or of some other sense. And this I would affirm of all such conceptions."
"Yes, Socrates, as far as the argument is concerned, one of them is the same as the other."
"And from the sense then is derived the knowledge that all sensible things aim at an idea of equality of which they fall short — is not that true?"
"Then before we began to see or hear or perceive in any way, we must have had a knowledge of absolute equality, or we could not have referred to that the equals which are derived from the senses? — for to that they all aspire, and of that they fall short?"
"That, Socrates, is certainly to be inferred from the previous statements."
"And did we not see and hear and acquire our other senses as soon as we were born?"
"Then we must have acquired the knowledge of the ideal equal at some time previous to this?"
"That is to say, before we were born, I suppose?"
"And if we acquired this knowledge before we were born, and were born having it, then we also knew before we were born and at the instant of birth not only the equal or the greater or the less, but all other ideas; for we are not speaking only of equality absolute, but of beauty, good, justice, holiness, and all which we stamp with the name of essence in the dialectical process, when we ask and answer questions. Of all this we may certainly affirm that we acquired the knowledge before birth?"
"That is true."
"But if, after having acquired, we have not forgotten that which we acquired, then we must always have been born with knowledge, and shall always continue to know as long as life lasts — for knowing is the acquiring and retaining knowledge and not forgetting. Is not forgetting, Simmias, just the losing of knowledge?"
"Quite true, Socrates."
"But if the knowledge which we acquired before birth was lost by us at birth, and if afterwards by the use of the senses we recovered that which we previously knew, will not that which we call learning be a process of recovering our knowledge, and may not this be rightly termed recollection by us?"
"For this is clear — that when we perceived something, either by the help of sight, or hearing, or some other sense, there was no difficulty in receiving from this a conception of some other thing like or unlike which had been forgotten and which was associated with this; and therefore, as I was saying, one of two alternatives follows: — either we had this knowledge at birth, and continued to know through life; or, after birth, those who are said to learn only remember, and learning is recollection only."
"Yes, that is quite true, Socrates."
"And which alternative, Simmias, do you prefer? Had we the knowledge at our birth, or did weremember afterwards the things which we knew previously to our birth?"
"I can not decide at the moment."
"At any rate, you can decide whether he who has knowledge ought or ought not to be able to give a reason for what he knows."
"Certainly, he ought."
"But do you think that every man is able to give a reason about these very matters of which we are speaking?"
"I wish that they could, Socrates, but I greatly fear that tomorrow at this time there will be no one able to give a reason worth having."
"Then you are not of opinion, Simmias, that all men know these things?"
"Then they are in process of recollecting that which they lerned before?"
"But when did our souls acquire this knowledge? — not since we were born as men?"
"And therefore, previously?"
"Then, Simmias, our souls must have existed before they were in the form of man — without bodies, and must have had intelligence."
"Unless indeed you suppose, Socrates, that these notions were given us at the moment of birth; for this is the only time that remains."
"Yes, my friend, but when did we lose them? For they are not in us when we are born — that is admitted. Did we lose them at the moment of receiving them, or at some other time?"
"No, Socrates, I perceive that I was unconsciously talking nonsense."
"Then may we not say, Simmias, that if, as we are always repeating, there is an absolute beauty, and goodness, and essence in general, and to this, which is now discovered to be a previous condition of our being, we refer all our sensations, and with this compare them — assuming this to have a prior existence, then our souls must have had a prior existence; but if not, there would be no force in the argument. There can be no doubt that if these absolute ideas existed before we were born, then our souls must have existed before we were born, and if not the ideas, then not the souls."
"Yes, Socrates; I am convinced that there is precisely the same necessity for the existence of the soul at birth, and of the essence of which you are speaking: and the argument arrives at a result which happily agrees with my own notion. For there is nothing which to my mind is so evident as that beauty, good, and other notions of which you were just now speaking have a most real and absolute existence; and I am satisfied with the proof."
"Well, but is Cebes equally satisfied? For I must convince him too."
"I think", said Simmias, "that Cebes is satisfied: although he is the most incredulous of mortals, yet I believe that he is convinced of the existence of the soul before birth. But that after death the soul will continue to exist is not yet proven even to my own satisfaction. I can not get rid of the feelings of the many to which Cebes referring — the feeling that when the man dies the soul may be scattered, and that this may be the end of her. For admitting that she may be generated and created in some other place, and may have existed before entering the human body, why after having entered in and gone out again may she not herself be destroyed and come to an end?"
"Very true, Simmias", said Cebes: "that our soul existed before we were born was the first half of the argument, and this appears to have been proven; that the soul will exist after death as well as before birth is the other half of which the proof is still wanting, and has to be supplied."
"But that proof, Simmias and Cebes, has been already given, said Socrates, if you put the two arguments together — I mean this and the former one, in which we admitted that everything living is born of the dead. For if the soul existed before birth, and in coming to life and being born can be born only from death and dying, must she not after death continue to exist, since she has to be born again? Surely the proof which you desire has been already furnished. Still I suspect that you and Simmias would be glad to probe the argument further: like children, you are haunted with a fear that when the soul leaves the body, the wind may really blow her away and scatter her; especially if a man should happen to die in stormy weather and not when the sky is calm."
Cebes answered with a smile: "Then, Socrates, you must argue us out of our fears — and yet, strictly speaking, they are not our fears, but there is a child within us to whom death is a sort of hobgoblin; him too we must persuade not to be afraid when he is alone with him in the dark."
Socrates said: "Let the voice of the charmer be applied daily until you have charmed him away."
"And where shall we find a good charmer of our fears, Socrates, when you are gone?"
"Hellas", he replied, "is a large place, Cebes, and has many good men, and there are barbarous races not a few: seek for him among them all, far and wide, sparing neither pains nor money; for there is no better way of using your money. And you must not forget to seek for him among yourselves too; for he is nowhere more likely to be found."
"The search", replied Cebes, "shall certainly be made. And now, if you please, let us return to the point of the argument at which we digressed."
"By all means", replied Socrates; "what else should I please?"
"Very good", he said.
"That is true", he said.
"Now the compound or composite may be supposed to be naturally capable of being dissolved in like manner as of being compounded; but that which is uncompounded, and that only, must be, if anything is, indissoluble."
"Yes; that is what I should imagine", said Cebes.
"And the uncompounded may be assumed to be the same and unchanging, whereas the compound is always changing and never the same?"
"That I also think", he said.
"Then now let us return to the previous discussion. Is that idea or essence, which in the dialectical process we define as essence or true existence — whether essence of equality, beauty, or anything else — are these essences, I say, liable at times to some degree of change? Or are they each of them always what they are, having the same simple self-existent and unchanging forms, and not admitting of variation at all, or in any way, or at any time?"
"They must be always the same, Socrates", replied Cebes.
"And what would you say of the many beautiful — whether men or horses, or garment, or any other things which may be called equal or beautiful — are they all unchanging and the same always, or quite the reverse? May they not rather be described as almost always changing and hardly ever the same, either with themselves or with one another?"
"The latter", replied Cebes: "they are always in a state of change."
"And these you can touch and see and perceive with the senses, but the unchanging things you can only perceive with the mind — they are invisible and are not seen?"
"That is very true", he said.
"Well then", he added, "let us suppose that there are two sorts of existences — one seen, the other unseen."
"Let us suppose them."
"The seen is the changing, and the unseen is the unchanging?"
"That may be also supposed."
"And, further, is not one part of us body, and the rest of us soul?"
"To be sure."
"And to which class may we say that the body is more alike and akin?"
"Clearly to the seen: no one can doubt that."
"And is the soul seen or not seen?"
"Not by man, Socrates."
"And by 'seen' and 'not seen' is meant by us that which is or is not visible to the eye of man?"
"Yes, to the eye of man."
"And what do we say of the soul? — is that seen or not seen?"
"Then the soul is more like to the unseen, and the body to the seen?"
"That is most certain, Socrates."
"And were we not saying long ago that the soul when using the body as an instrument of perception, that is to say, when using the sense of sight or hearing or some other sense (for the meaning of perceiving through the body is perceiving through the senses) — were we not saying that the soul too is then dragged by the body into the region of the changeable, and wanders and is confused; the world spins round her, and she is like a drunkard when under their influence?
"But when returning into herself she reflects; then she passes into the realm of purity, and eternity, and immortality, and unchangeableness, which are her kindred, and with them she ever lives, when she is by herself and is not let or hindered; then she ceases from her erring ways, and being in communion with the unchanging is unchanging. And this state of the soul is called wisdom?"
"That is well and truly said, Socrates", he replied.
"And to which class is the soul more nearly alike and akin, as far as may be inferred from this argument, as well as from the preceding one?"
"I think, Socrates, that, in the opinion of every one who follows the argument, the soul will be infinitely more like the unchangeable — even the most stupid person will not deny that."
"And the body is more like the changing?"
"Yet once more consider the matter in this light: When the soul and the body are united, then nature orders the soul to rule and govern, and the body to obey and serve. Now which of these two functions is akin to the divine? And which to the mortal? Does not the divine appear to you to be that which naturally orders and rules, and the mortal that which is subject and servant?"
"And which does the soul resemble?"
"The soul resembles the divine, and the body the mortal — there can be no doubt of that, Socrates."
"Then reflect, Cebes: is not the conclusion of the whole matter this — that the soul is in the very likeness of the divine, and immortal, and intelligible, and uniform, and indissoluble, and unchangeable; and the body is in the very likeness of the human, and mortal, and unintelligible, and multiform, and dissoluble, and changeable. Can this, my dear Cebes, be denied?"
"But if this is true, then is not the body liable to speedy dissolution? And is not the soul almost or altogether indissoluble?"
"And do you further observe that after a man is dead, the body, which is the visible part of man, and has a visible framework, which is called a corpse, and which would naturally be dissolved and decomposed and dissipated, is not dissolved or decomposed at once, but may remain for a good while, if the constitution be sound at the time of death, and the season of the year favourable? For the body when shrunk and embalmed, as is the custom in Egypt, may remain almost entire through infinite ages; and even in decay, still there are some portions, such as the bones and ligaments, which are practically indestructible. You allow that?"
"And are we to suppose that the soul, which is invisible, in passing to the true Hades, which like her is invisible, and pure, and noble, and on her way to the true and wise God, whither, if God will, my soul is also soon to go — that the soul, I repeat, if this be her nature and origin, is blown away and perishes immediately on quitting the body, as the many say? That can never be, my dear Simmias and Cebes. The truth rather is that the soul, which is pure at departing, draws after her no bodily taint, having never voluntarily had connection with the body, which she is ever avoiding, having gathered into herself; for such abstraction has been the study of her life. And what does this mean but that she has been a true disciple of philosophy, and has practised how to die easily? And is not philosophy the practice of death?"
"That soul, I say, herself invisible, departs to the invisible world — to the divine and immortal and rational: thither arriving, she lives in bliss and is released from the error and folly of men, their fears and wild passions and all other human ills, and forever dwells, as they say of the initiated, in company with the gods? Is this not true, Cebes?"
"Yes", said Cebes, "beyond a doubt."
"But the soul which has been polluted, and is impure at the time of her departure, and is the companion and servant of the body always, and is in love with and fascinated by the body and by the desires and pleasures of the body, until she is led to believe that the truth only exists in a bodily form, which a man may touch and see and taste and use for the purposes of his lusts — the soul, I mean, accustomed to hate and fear and to avoid the intellectual principle, and can be attained only by philosophy — do you suppose that such a soul as this will depart pure and unalloyed?"
"That is impossible", he replied.
"She is engrossed by the corporeal, which the continual association and constant care of the body have made natural to her."
"And this, my friend, may be conceived to be that heavy, weighty, earthy element of sight by which such a soul is depressed and dragged down again into the visible world, because she is afraid of the invisible and of the world below — prowling about tombs and sepulchres in the neighbourhood of which, as they tell us, are seen certain ghostly apparitions of souls which have not departed pure, but are cloyed with sight and therefore visible."
"That is very likely, Socrates."
"Yes, that is very likely, Cebes; and these must be the souls, not of the good, but of the evil, who are compelled to wander about such places in payment of the penalty of their former evil way of life; and they continue to wander until the desire which haunts them is satisfied and they are imprisoned in another body. And they may be supposed to be fixed in the same natures which they had in their former life."
"What natures do you mean, Socrates?"
"I mean to say that men who have followed after gluttony, and wantonness, and drunkenness, and have had no thought of avoiding them, would pass into asses and animals of that sort. What do you think?"
"I think that exceedingly probable."
"And those who have chosen the portion of injustice, and tyranny, and violence, will pass into wolves, or hawks and kites: — whither else can we suppose them to go?"
"Yes", said Cebes; "that is doubtless the place of natures such as theirs."
"And there is no difficulty", he said, "in assigning to all of them places answering to their several natures and propensities?"
"There is not", he said.
"Even among them some are happier than others; and the happiest both in themselves and their place of abode are those who have practised the civil and social virtues which are called temperance and justice, and are acquired by habit and attention without philosophy and mind."
"Why are they the happiest?"
"Because they may be expected to pass into some gentle social nature which is like their own, such as that of bees or ants, or even back again into the form of man, and just and moderate men spring from them."
"That is not impossible."
"But he who is a philosopher or lover of learning, and is entirely pure at departing, is alone permitted to reach the gods. And this is the reason, Simmias and Cebes, why the true votaries of philosophy abstain from all fleshly lusts, and endure and refuse to give themselves up to them — not because they fear poverty or the ruin of their families, like the lovers of money, and the world in general; nor like the lovers of power and honour, because they dread the dishonour and disgrace of evil deeds."
"No, Socrates, that would not become them", said Cebes.
"No, indeed", he replied; "and therefore they who have a care of their souls, and do not merely live in the fashions of the body, say farewell to all this; they will not walk in the ways of the blind: and when philosophy offers them purification and release from evil, they feel that they ought not to resist her influence, and to her they incline, and whither she leads they follow her."
"What do you mean, Socrates?"
"I will tell you", he said. "The lovers of knowledge are conscious that their souls when philosophy receives them, are simply fastened and glued to their bodies: the soul is only able to view existence through the bars of a prison, and not in her own nature; she is wallowing in the mire of all ignorance; and philosophy, seeing the terrible nature of her confinement, and that the captive through desire is led to conspire in her own captivity (for the lovers of knowledge are aware that this was the original state of the soul, and that when she was in this state philosophy received and gently counselled her, and wanted to release her, pointing out to her that the eye is full of deceit, and also the ear and the other senses, and persuading her to retire from them in all but the necessary use of them, and to trust only to herself and her own intuitions of absolute existence, and mistrust that which comes to her through others and is subject to vicissitude) — philosophy shows her that this is visible and tangible, but that what she sees in her own nature is intellectual and invisible. And the soul of the true philosopher thinks that she ought not to resist this deliverance, and therefore abstains from pleasures and desires and pains and fears, as far as she is able; reflecting that when a man has great joys or sorrows or fears or desires, he suffers from them, not the sort of evil which might be anticipated — as, for example, the loss of his health or property which he has sacrificed to his lusts — but he has suffered an evil greater far, which is the greatest and worst of all evils, and one of which he never thinks."
"And what is that, Socrates?" said Cebes.
"Why, this: When the feeling of pleasure or pain in the soul is most intense, all of us naturally suppose that the object of this feeling is then plainest and truest: but this is not the case.
"And this is the state in which the soul is most enthralled by the body."
"How is that?"
"Why, because each pleasure and pain is a sort of nail which nails and rivets the soul to the body, and engrosses her and makes her believe that to be true which the body affirms to be true; and from agreeing with the body and having the same delights she is obliged to have the same habits and ways, and is not likely ever to be pure at her departure to the world below, but is always saturated with the body; so that she soon sinks into another body and there germinates and grows, and has therefore no part in the communion of the divine and pure and simple."
"That is most true, Socrates", answered Cebes.
"And this, Cebes, is the reason why the true lovers of knowledge are temperate and brave; and not for the reason which the world gives."
"Certainly not! For in that way does the soul of a philosopher reason; she will not ask philosophy to release her in order that when released she may deliver herself again to the thraldom of pleasures and pains, doing a work only to be undone again, weaving instead of unweaving her Penelope's web [see Homer's Odyssey — Ed]. But she will make herself a calm of passion, and follow reason, and dwell in her, beholding the true and divine (which is not matter of opinion), and thence derive nourishment. Thus she seeks to live while she lives, and after death she hopes to go on to her own kindred and to be freed from human ills. Never fear, Simmias and Cebes, that a soul which has been thus nurtured and has had these pursuits, will at her departure from the body be scattered and blown away by the winds and be nowhere and nothing."
Simmias said: "I must confess, Socrates, that doubts did arise in our minds, and each of us was urging and inciting the other to put the question which we wanted to have answered and which neither of us liked to ask, fearing that our importunity might be troublesome under present circumstances."
Socrates smiled, and said: "O Simmias, how strange that is; I am not very likely to persuade other men that I do not regard my present situation as a misfortune if I am unable to persuade you, and you will keep fancying that I am at all more troubled now than at any other time. Will you not allow that I have as much of the spirit of prophecy in me as the swans? For they, when they perceive that they must die, having sung all their life long, do then sing more than ever, rejoicing in the thought that they are about to go away to the god whose ministers they are. But men, because they are themselves afraid of death, slanderously affirm of the swans that they sing a lament at the last, not considering that no bird sings when cold, or hungry, or in pain, not even the nightingale, nor the swallow, nor yet the hoopoe; which are said indeed to tune a lay of sorrow, although I do not believe this to be true of them any more than of the swans. But because they are sacred to Apollo, and have the gift of prophecy, and anticipate the good things of another world, therefore they sing and rejoice in that day more than ever they did before. And I too, believing myself to be the consecrated servant of the same God, and the fellow-servant of the swans, and thinking that I have received from my Master gifts of prophecy which are not inferior to theirs, would not go out of life less merrily than the swans. Cease to mind then about this, but speak and ask anything which you like, while the eleven magistrates of Athens allow."
"Well, Socrates", said Simmias, "then I will tell you my difficulty, and Cebes will tell you his. For I dare say that you, Socrates, feel as I do, how very hard or almost impossible is the attainment of any certainty about questions such as these in the present life. And yet I should deem him a coward who did not prove what is said about them to the uttermost, or whose heart failed him before he had examined them on every side.
"For he should persevere until he has attained one of two things: either he should discover or learn the truth about them; or, if this is impossible, I would have him take the best and most irrefragable of human notions, and let this be the raft upon which he sails through life — not without risk, as I admit, if he can not find some word of God which will more surely and safely carry him. And now, as you bid me, I will venture to question you as I should not like to reproach myself hereafter with not having said at the time what I think. For when I consider the matter, either alone or with Cebes, the argument does certainly appear to me, Socrates, to be not sufficient."
Socrates answered: "I dare say, my friend, that you may be right, but I should like to know in what respect the argument is not sufficient."
"In this respect", replied Simmias: — "might not a person use the same argument about harmony and the lyre — might he not say that harmony is a thing invisible, incorporeal, fair, divine, abiding in the lyre which is harmonised, but that the lyre and the strings are matter and material, composite, earthy, and akin to mortality? And when some one breaks the lyre, or cuts and rends the strings, then he who takes this view would argue as you do, and on the same analogy, that the harmony survives and has not perished; for you can not imagine, as he would say, that the lyre without the strings, and the broken strings themselves remain, and yet that the harmony, which is of heavenly and immortal nature and kindred has perished — and perished too before the mortal. That harmony, he would say, certainly exists somewhere, and the wood and strings will decay before that decays.
"For I suspect, Socrates, that the notion of the soul which we are all inclined to entertain, would also be yours, and that you too would conceive the body to be strung up, and held together, by the elements of hot and cold, wet and dry, and the like, and that the soul is the harmony or due proportionate admixture of them. And, if this is true, the inference clearly is that when the strings of the body are unduly loosened or overstrained through disorder or other injury, then the soul, though most divine, like other harmonies of music or of works of art, of course perishes at once; although the material remains of the body may last for a considerable time, until they are either decayed or burned. Now if any one maintained that the soul, being the harmony of the elements of the body, first perishes in that which is called death, how shall we answer him?"
Socrates looked round at us as his manner was, and said with a smile: "Simmias has reason on his side; and why does not some one of you who is abler than myself answer him? for there is force in his attack upon me. But perhaps, before we answer him, we had better also hear what Cebes has to say against the argument — this will give us time for reflection, and when both of them have spoken, we may either assent to them, if their words appear to be in consonance with the truth, or if not, we may take up the other side, and argue with them. Please tell me then, Cebes", he said, "what was the difficulty which troubled you?"
Cebes said: "I will tell you. My feeling is that the argument is still in the same position, and open to the same objections which were urged before; for I am ready to admit that the existence of the soul before entering into the bodily form has been very ingeniously and, as I may be allowed to say, quite sufficiently proven; but the existence of the soul after death is still, in my judgment, unproven. Now my objection is not the same as that of Simmias; for I am not disposed to deny that the soul is stronger and more lasting than the body, being of opinion that in all such respects the soul very far excels the body.
"Well then, says the argument to me, why do you remain unconvinced? — When you see that the weaker is still in existence after the man is dead, will you not admit that the more lasting must also survive during the same period of time? Now I, like Simmias, must employ a figure; and I shall ask you to consider whether the figure is to the point.
"The parallel which I will suppose is that of an old weaver, who dies, and after his death somebody says: — 'He is not dead, he must be alive'; and he appeals to the coat which he himself wove and wore, and which is still whole and undecayed. And then he proceeds to ask of some one who is incredulous, whether a man lasts longer, or the coat which is in use and wear; and when he is answered that a man lasts far longer, thinks that he has thus certainly demonstrated the survival of the man, who is the more lasting, because the less lasting remains.
"But that, Simmias, as I would beg you to observe, is not the truth; everyone sees that he who talks thus is talking nonsense. For the truth is that this weaver, having worn and woven many such coats, though he outlived several of them, was himself outlived by the last; but this is surely very far from proving that a man is slighter and weaker than a coat.
"Now the relation of the body to the soul may be expressed in a similar figure; for you may say with reason that the soul is lasting, and the body weak and short-lived in comparison. And every soul may be said to wear out many bodies, especially in the course of a long life. For if while the man is alive the body deliquesces and decays, and yet the soul always weaves her garment anew and repairs the waste, then of course, when the soul perishes, she must have on her last garment, and this only will survive her; but then again, when the soul is dead, the body will at last show its native weakness and soon pass into decay.
"And therefore this is an argument on which I would rather not rely as proving that the soul exists after death. For suppose that we grant even more than you affirm as within the range of possibility, and besides acknowledging that the soul existed before birth, admit also that after death the souls of some are existing still, and will exist, and will be born many times — for all this, we may be still inclined to think that she will weary in the labours of successive births, and may at last succumb in one of her deaths and utterly perish; and this death and dissolution of the body which brings destruction to the soul may be unknown to any of us, for no one of us can have had any experience of it: and if this be true, then I say that he who is confident in death has but a foolish confidence, unless he is able to prove that the soul is altogether immortal and imperishable. But if he is not able to prove this, he who is about to die will always have reason to fear that when the body is disunited, the soul also may utterly perish."
All of us, as we afterwards remarked to one another, had an unpleasant feeling at hearing them say this. When we had been so firmly convinced before, now to have our faith shaken seemed to introduce a confusion and uncertainty, not only into the previous argument but into any future one; either we were not good judges, or there were no real grounds for belief.
"Yes, Socrates, I suppose they will", I replied.
"Not so, if you will take my advice."
"What shall I do with them?" I said.
"Today, he replied, and not tomorrow, if this argument dies and can not be brought to life again by us, you and I will both shave our locks: and if I were you, and could not maintain my ground against Simmias and Cebes, I would myself take an oath, like the Argives [citizens of Argos, a Greek city not infrequently at war with other city states such as Sparta. — Ed.], not to wear hair any more until I had renewed the conflict and defeated them."
"Yes", I said; "but Heracles [Hercules in Latin — Ed.] himself is said not to be match for two."
"Summon me then", he said, "and I will be your Iolaus [Nephew, charioteer, and assistant of Heracles — Ed.] until the sun goes down."
"I summon you rather", I said, "not as Hercules summoning Iolaus, but as Iolaus might summon Heracles."
"And what is that?" I said.
"The danger of becoming misologists", he replied, "which is one of the very worst things that can happen to us. For as there are misanthropists or haters of men, there are also misologists or haters of ideas, and both spring from the same cause, which is ignorance of the world. Misanthropy arises from the too great confidence of inexperience; — you trust a man and think him altogether true and good and faithful, and then in a little while he turns out to be false and knavish: and then another and another, and when this has happened several times to a man, especially within the circle of his own most trusted friends, as he deems them, and he has often quarrelled with them, he at last hates all men, and believes that no one has any good in him at all. I dare say you must have observed this."
"Yes", I said.
"And is this not discreditable? The reason is that a man, having to deal with other men, has no knowledge of them; for if he had knowledge, he would have known the true state of the case, that few are the good and few the evil, and that the great majority are in the interval between them."
"How do you mean?" I said.
"I mean", he replied, "as you might say of the very large and the very small — that nothing is more uncommon than a very large or very small man; and this applies generally to all extremes, whether of great and small, or swift and slow, of fair and foul, or black and white: and whether the instances you select be men or dogs or anything else, few are the extremes, but many are in the mean between them. Did you never observe this?"
"Yes", I said, "I have."
"And do you not imagine", he said, "that if there were a competition of evil, the first in evil would be found to be very few?"
"Yes, that is very likely", I said."
"Yes, that is very likely", he replied; "not that in this respect arguments are like men — there I was led on by you to say more than I had intended; but the point of comparison was that when a simple man who has no skill in dialectics believes an argument to be true which he afterwards imagines to be false, whether really false or not, and then another and another, he has no longer any faith left, and great disputers, as you know, come to think at last that they have grown to be the wisest of mankind; for they alone perceive the utter unsoundness and instability of all arguments, or indeed, of all things, which, like the currents of the Euripus, are going up and down in never-ceasing ebb and flow."
"That is quite true", I said.
"Yes, Phaedo", he replied, "and very melancholy too, if there be such a thing as truth or certainty or power of knowing at all, that a man should have lighted upon some argument or other which at first seemed true and then turned out to be false, and instead of blaming himself and his own want of wit, because he is annoyed, should at last be too glad to transfer the blame from himself to arguments in general: and for ever afterwards should hate and revile them, and lose the truth and knowledge of existence."
"Yes, indeed", I said; "that is very melancholy."
"Let us then, in the first place", he said, "be careful of admitting into our souls the notion that there is no truth or health or soundness in any arguments at all; but let us rather say that there is as yet no health in us, and that we must quit ourselves like men and do our best to gain health — you and all other men with a view to the whole of your future life, and I myself with a view to death. For at this moment I am sensible that I have not the temper of a philosopher; like the vulgar, I am only a partisan. For the partisan, when he is engaged in a dispute, cares nothing about the rights of the question, but is anxious only to convince his hearers of his own assertions. And the difference between him and me at the present moment is only this — that whereas he seeks to convince his hearers that what he says is true, I am rather seeking to convince myself; to convince my hearers is a secondary matter with me.
"And do but see how much I gain by this. For if what I say is true, then I do well to be persuaded of the truth; but if there be nothing after death, still, during the short time that remains, I shall save my friends from lamentations, and my ignorance will not last, and therefore no harm will be done. This is the state of mind, Simmias and Cebes, in which I approach the argument. And I would ask you to be thinking of the truth and not of Socrates: agree with me, if I seem to you to be speaking the truth; or if not, withstand me might and main, that I may not deceive you as well as myself in my enthusiasm, and like the bee, leave my sting in you before I die.
They both agreed to this statement of them.
He proceeded: "And did you deny the force of the whole preceding argument, or of a part only?"
"Of a part only", they replied.
"And what did you think", he said, "of that part of the argument in which we said that knowledge was recollection only, and inferred from this that the soul must have previously existed somewhere else before she was enclosed in the body?"
Cebes said that he had been wonderfully impressed by that part of the argument, and that his conviction remained unshaken. Simmias agreed, and added that he himself could hardly imagine the possibility of his ever thinking differently about that.
"No, Socrates, that is impossible."
"But do you not see that you are saying this when you say that the soul existed before she took up the form and body of man, and was made up of elements which as yet had no existence? For harmony is not a sort of thing, like the soul, as you suppose; but first the lyre, and the strings, and the sounds exist in a state of discord, and then harmony is made last of all, and perishes first. And how can such a notion of the soul as this agree with the other?"
"Not at all", replied Simmias.
"And yet", he said, "there surely ought to be harmony when harmony is the theme of discourse."
"There ought", replied Simmias.
"But there is no harmony", he said, "in the two propositions that knowledge is recollection, and that the soul is a harmony. Which of them will you retain?"
"I think", he replied, "that I have a much stronger faith, Socrates, in the first of the two, which has been fully demonstrated to me, than in the latter, which has not been demonstrated at all, but rests only on probable and plausible grounds; and I know too well that these arguments from probabilities are impostors, and unless great caution is observed in the use of them, they are apt to be deceptive — in geometry, and in other things too. But the doctrine of knowledge and recollection has been proven to me on trustworthy grounds; and the proof was that the soul must have existed before she came into the body, because to her belongs the essence of which the very name implies existence. Having, as I am convinced, rightly accepted this conclusion, and on sufficient grounds, I must, as I suppose, cease to argue or allow others to argue that the soul is a harmony."
"Let me put the matter, Simmias", he said, "in another point of view: Do you imagine that a harmony or any other composition can be in a state other than that of the elements out of which it is compounded?"
"Or do or suffer anything other than they do or suffer?"
"Then a harmony does not lead the parts or elements which make up the harmony, but only follows them."
"For harmony cannot possibly have any motion, or sound, or other quality which is opposed to the parts."
"That would be impossible", he replied.
"And does not every harmony depend upon the manner in which the elements are harmonised?"
"I do not understand you", he said.
"I mean to say that a harmony admits of degrees, and is more of a harmony, and more completely a harmony, when more completely harmonised, if that be possible; and less of a harmony, and less completely a harmony, when less harmonised."
"But does the soul admit of degrees? Or is one soul in the very least degree more or less, or more or less completely, a soul than another?"
"Not in the least."
"Yet surely one soul is said to have intelligence and virtue, and to be good, and another soul is said to have folly and vice, and to be an evil soul: and this is said truly?"
"But what will those who maintain the soul to be a harmony say of this presence of virtue and vice in the soul? — will they say that here is another harmony, and another discord, and that the virtuous soul is harmonised, and herself being harmony has another harmony within her, and that the vicious soul is inharmonical and has no harmony within her?"
"I can not say", replied Simmias; "but I suppose that something of that kind would be asserted by those who take this view."
"And the admission is already made that no soul is more a soul than another; and this is equivalent to admitting that harmony is not more or less a harmony, or more or less completely a harmony?"
"And that which is not more or less a harmony is not more or less harmonised?"
"And that which is not more or less harmonised can not have more or less of harmony, but only an equal harmony?"
"Yes, an equal harmony."
"Then one soul not being more or less absolutely a soul than another, is not more of less harmonised?"
"And therefore has neither more nor less of harmony or of discord?"
"She has not."
"And having neither more nor less of harmony or of discord, one soul has no more vice or virtue than another, if vice be discord and virtue harmony?"
"Not at all more."
"Or speaking more correctly, Simmias, the soul, if she is a harmony, will never have any vice; because a harmony, being absolutely a harmony, has no part in the inharmonical."
"And therefore a soul which is absolutely a soul has no vice?"
"How can she have, consistently with the preceding argument?"
"Then, according to this, if the souls of all animals are equally and absolutely souls, they will be equally good?"
"I agree with you, Socrates", he said.
"And can all this be true, think you?" he said; "and are all these consequences admissible — which nevertheless seem to follow from the assumption that the soul is a harmony?"
"Certainly not", he said.
"Once more", he said, "what ruling principle is there of human things other than the soul, and especially the wise soul? Do you know of any?"
"Indeed, I do not."
"And is the soul in agreement with the affections of the body? Or is she at variance with them? For example, when the body is hot and thirsty, does not the soul incline us against drinking, and when the body is hungry, against eating? And this is only one instance out of ten thousand of the opposition of the soul to the things of the body."
"But we have already acknowledged that the soul, being a harmony, can never utter a note at variance with the tensions and relaxations and vibrations and other affections of the strings out of which she is composed; she can only follow, she cannot lead them?"
"Yes", he said, "we acknowledged that, certainly."
"And yet do we not now discover the soul to be doing the exact opposite — leading the elements of which she is believed to be composed: almost always opposing and coercing them in all sorts of ways throughout life, sometimes more violently with the pains of medicine and gymnastic; then again more gently; — threatening and also reprimanding the desires, passions, fears, as if talking to a thing which is not herself, as Homer in the Odyssey reprsents Odysseus doing in the words: —
"Do you think that Homer could have written this under the idea that the soul is a harmony capable of being led by the affections of the body, and not rather of a nature which leads and masters them; and herself a far diviner thing than any harmony?"
"Yes, Socrates, I quite agree to that."
"Then, my friend, we can never be right in saying that the soul is a harmony, for that would clearly contradict the divine Homer as well as ourselves."
"True", he said.
"Thus much", said Socrates, "of Harmonia, your Theban goddess, Cebes, who has not been ungracious to us, I think; but what shall I say to the Theban Cadmus, and how shall I propitiate him?" [Harmonia, in Greek mythology, the daughter of Ares and Aphrodite, according to the Theban account. She was carried off by Cadmus, and all the gods honoured the wedding with their presence — E. Britannica.]
"I think that you will discover a way of propitiating him", said Cebes; "I am sure that you have answered the argument about harmony in a manner that I could never have expected. For when Simmias mentioned his objection, I quite imagined that no answer could be given to him, and therefore I was surprised at finding that this argument could not sustain the first onset of yours, and not impossibly the other, whom you call Cadmus, may share a similar fate."
Is the Soul Truly Imperishable? "Nay, my good friend", said Socrates, "let us not boast, lest some evil eye should put to flight the word which I am about to speak. That, however, may be left in the hands of those above; while I draw near in Homeric fashion, and try the mettle of your words. Briefly, the sum of your objection is as follows:-
"You want to have proven to you that the soul is imperishable and immortal, and you think that the philosopher who is confident in death has but a vain and foolish confidence if he thinks that he will fare better than one who has led another sort of life in the world below unless he can prove this: and you say that the demonstration of the strength and divinity of the soul, and of her existence prior to our becoming men, does not necessarily imply her immortality. Granting that the soul is long-lived, and has known and done much in a former state, still she is not on that account immortal; and her entrance into the human form may be a sort of disease which is the beginning of dissolution, and may at last, after the toils of life are over, end in that which is called death.
"And whether the soul enters into the body once only or many times, that, as you would say, makes no difference in the fears of individuals. For any man who is not devoid of natural feeling has reason to fear if he has no knowledge or proof of the soul's immortality. That is what I suppose you to say, Cebes, which I designedly repeat, in order that nothing may escape us, and that you may, if you wish, add or subtract anything."
"But", said Cebes, "as far as I see at present, I have nothing to add or subtract; you have expressed my meaning."
Socrates paused awhile and seemed to be absorbed in reflection. At length he said: "This is a very serious inquiry which you are raising, Cebes, involving the whole question of generation and corruption, about which I will, if you like, give you my own experience; and you can apply this, if you think that anything which I say will avail towards the solution of your difficulty."
"I should very much like", said Cebes, "to hear what you have to say."
"Then I will tell you", said Socrates. "When I was young, Cebes, I had a prodigious desire to know that department of philosophy which is called Natural Science; this appeared to me to have lofty aims, as being the science which has to do with the causes of things, and which teaches why a thing is, and is created and destroyed; and I was always agitating myself with the consideration of such questions as these: — Is the growth of animals the result of some decay which the hot and cold principle contract, as some have said? Is the blood the element with which we think, or the air, or the fire? Or perhaps nothing of this sort — but the brain may be the originating power of the perceptions of hearing and sight and smell, and memory and opinion may come from them, and science may be based on memory and opinion when no longer in motion, but at rest.
"And then I went on to examine the decay of them, and then to the things of heaven and earth, and at last I concluded that I was wholly incapable of these inquiries, as I will satisfactorily prove to you. For I was fascinated by them to such a degree that my eyes grew blind to things that I had seemed to myself, and also to others, to know quite well; and I forgot what I had before thought to be self-evident, that the growth of man is the result of eating and drinking; for when by the digestion of food flesh is added to flesh and bone to bone, and whenever there is an aggregation of congenial elements, the lesser bulk becomes larger and the small man greater. Was not that a reasonable notion?"
"Yes", said Cebes, "I think so."
"Well: but let me tell you something more. There was a time when I thought that I understood the meaning of greater and less pretty well; and when I saw a great man standing by a little one, I fancied that one was taller than the other by a head; or one horse would appear to be greater than another horse: and still more clearly did I seem to perceive that ten is two more than eight, and that two cubits are more than one, because two is twice one."
"And what is now your notion of such matters?" said Cebes.
"I should be far enough from imagining", he replied, "that I knew the cause of any of them, indeed I should: for I can not satisfy myself that when one is added to one, the one to which the addition is made becomes two, or that the two units added together make two by reason of the addition. For I cannot understand how, when separated from the other, each of them was one and not two, and now, when they are brought together, the mere juxtaposition of them can be the cause of their becoming two; nor can I understand how the division of one is the way to make two; for then a different cause would produce the same effect, — as in the former instance the addition and juxtaposition of one was the cause of two, in this the separation and subtraction of one from the other would be the cause. Nor am I any longer satisfied that I understand the reason why one or anything else either is generated or destroyed or is at all, but I have in my mind some confused notion of another method, and can never admit this.
"Then I heard some one who had a book of Anaxagoras, as he said, out of which he read that mind was the disposer and cause of all, and I was quite delighted at the notion of this, which appeared admirable, and I said to myself: If mind is the disposer, mind will dispose all for the best, and put each particular in the best place; and I argued that if any one desired to find out the cause of the generation or destruction or existence of anything, he must find out what state of being or suffering or doing was best for that thing, and therefore a man had only to consider the best for himself and others, and then he would also know the worse, for that the same science comprised both. And I rejoiced to think that I had found in Anaxagoras a teacher of the causes of existence such as I desired, and I imagined that he would tell me first whether the earth is flat or round; and then he would further explain the cause and the necessity of this, and would teach me the nature of the best and would show that this was best; and if he said that the earth was in the centre, he would explain that this position was the best, and I should be satisfied if this were shown to me, and not want any other sort of cause.
"And I thought that I would then go on and ask him about the sun and moon and stars, and that he would explain to me their comparative swiftness, and their returnings and various states, and how their several affections, active and passive, were all for the best. For I could not imagine that when he spoke of mind as the disposer of them, he would give any other account of their being as they are, except that this was the best; and I thought that when he had explained to me in detail the cause of each and the cause of all, he would go on to explain to me what was best for each and what was best for all. I had hopes which I would not have sold for much, and I seized the books and read them as fast as I could in my eagerness to know the better and the worse.
"What hopes I had formed, and how grievously was I disappointed! As I proceeded, I found my philosopher altogether forsaking mind or any other principle of order, but having recourse to air, and ether, and water, and other eccentricities. I might compare him to a person who began by maintaining generally that mind is the cause of the actions of Socrates, but who, when he endeavoured to explain the causes of my several actions in detail, went on to show that I sit here because my body is made up of bones and muscles; and the bones, as he would say, are hard and have ligaments which divide them, and the muscles are elastic, and they cover the bones, which have also a covering of flesh and skin which conjoins them; and as the bones are lifted at their joints by the contraction or relaxation of the muscles, I am able to bend my limbs, and this is why I am sitting here in a curved posture: — that is what he would say, and he would have a similar explanation of my talking to you, which he would attribute to sound, and air, and hearing, and he would assign ten thousand other causes of the same sort, forgetting to mention the true cause, which is, that the Athenians have thought fit to condemn me, and accordingly I have thought it better and more right to remain here and undergo my sentence; for I am inclined to think that these muscles and bones of mine would have gone off to Megara or Boeotia — by the dog of Egypt they would, if they had been guided only by their own idea of what was best, and if I had not chosen as the better and nobler part, instead of playing truant and running away, to undergo any punishment which the state inflicts.
"There is surely a strange confusion of causes and conditions in all this. It may be said, indeed, that without bones and muscles and the other parts of the body I can not execute my purposes. But to say that I do as I do because of them, and that this is the way in which mind acts, and not from the choice of the best, is a very careless and idle mode of speaking.
"I wonder that they can not distinguish the cause from the condition, which the many, feeling about in the dark, are always mistaking and misnaming. And thus one man makes a vortex all round and steadies the earth by the heaven; another gives the air as a support to the earth, which is a sort of broad trough. Any [idea of the] power which, in disposing them as they are disposes them for the best, never enters into their minds, nor do they imagine that there is any superhuman strength in that; they rather expect to find another Atlas of the world who is stronger and more everlasting and more containing than the good is, and are clearly of opinion that the obligatory and containing power of the good is as nothing; and yet this is the principle which I would fain learn if any one would teach me.
"But as I have failed either to discover myself, or to learn of any one else, the nature of the best, I will exhibit to you, if you like, what I have found to be the second best mode of inquiring into the cause."
"I should very much like to hear that", he replied.
Socrates proceeded: — "I thought that as I had failed in the contemplation of true existence, I ought to be careful that I did not lose the eye of my soul — as people may injure their bodily eye by observing and gazing on the sun during an eclipse, unless they take the precaution of only looking at the image reflected in the water, or in some similar medium. That occurred to me, and I was afraid that my soul might be blinded altogether if I looked at things with my eyes or tried by the help of the senses to apprehend them. And I thought that I had better have recourse to ideas, and seek in them the truth of existence. I dare say that the simile is not perfect — for I am very far from admitting that he who contemplates existences through the medium of ideas sees them only 'through a glass darkly', and more than he who sees them in their working and effects.
"However, this was the method which I adopted: I first assumed some principle which I judged to be the strongest, and then I affirmed as true whatever seemed to agree with this, whether relating to the cause or to anything else; and that which disagreed I regarded as untrue. But I should like to explain my meaning clearly, as I do not think that you understand me."
"No indeed", replied Cebes, "not very well."
"There is nothing new", he said, "in what I am about to tell you; but only what I have been always and everywhere repeating in the previous discussion and on other occasions: I want to show you the nature of that cause which has occupied my thoughts, and I shall have to go back to those familiar words which are in the mouth of every one, and first of all assume that there is an absolute beauty and goodness, and greatness, and the like; grant me this, and I hope to be able to show you the nature of the cause, and to prove the immortality of the soul."
Cebes said: "You may proceed at once with the proof, as I readily grant you this."
"Well", he said, "then I should like to know whether you agree with me in the next step; for I can not help thinking that if there be anything beautiful other than absolute beauty, that can only be beautiful in as far as it partakes of absolute beauty — and this I should say of everything. Do you agree in this notion of the cause?"
"Yes", he said, "I agree."
He proceeded: "I know nothing and can understand nothing of any other of those wise causes which are alleged; and if a person says to me that the bloom of colour, or form, or anything else of that sort is a source of beauty, I leave all that, which is only confusing to me, and simply and singly, and perhaps foolishly, hold and am assured that nothing makes a thing beautiful but the presence and participation of beauty in whatever way or manner obtained; for as to the manner I am uncertain, but I stoutly contend that by beauty all beautiful things become beautiful. That appears to me to be the only safe answer that I can give, either to myself or to any other, and to that I cling, in the persuasion that I shall never be overthrown, and that I may safely answer to myself or any other, that by beauty beautiful things become beautiful. Do you not agree to that?"
"Yes, I agree."
"And that by greatness, only great things become great and greater greater, and by smallness the less become less."
"Then if a person remarks that A is taller by a head than B, and B is less by a head than A, you would refuse to admit this, and would stoutly contend that what you mean is only that the greater is greater by, and by reason of, greatness, and the less is less by, or by reason of, smallness; and thus you would avoid the danger of saying that the greater is greater and the less less by the measure of the head, which is the same in both, and would also avoid the monstrous absurdity of supposing that the greater man is greater by reason of the head, which is small. Would you not be afraid of that?"
"Indeed, I would", said Cebes, laughing.
"In like manner you would be afraid to say that ten exceeded eight by, and by reason of, two; but would say by, and by reason of, number; or that two cubits exceed one cubit by a half, but by magnitude? — that is what you would say, for there is the same danger in both cases."
"Very true", he said.
"Again, would you not be cautious of affirming that the addition of one to one, or the division of one, is the cause of two? And you would loudly asseverate that you know no way in which anything comes into existence except by participation in its own proper essence, and consequently, as far as you know, the only cause of two is the participation in duality; that is the way to make two, and the participation in one is the way to make one. You would say: I will let alone puzzles of division and addition — wiser heads than mine may answer them; inexperienced as I am, and ready to start, as the proveb says, at my own shadow, I can not afford to give up the sure ground of a principle.
"And if any one assails you there, you would not mind him, or answer him, until you had seen whether the consequences which follow agree with one another or not, and when you are further required to give an explanation of this principle, you would go on to assume a higher principle, and the best of the higher ones until you found a resting-place; but you would not confuse the principle and the consequences in your reasoning, like the Eristics [people who are fond of wrangling — Ed.] — at least if you wanted to discover real existence. Not that this confusion signifies to them who never care or think about the matter at all, for they have the wit to be well pleased with themselves however great may be the turmoil of their ideas. But you, if you are a philosopher, will, I believe, do as I say.
"What you say is most true", said Simmias and Cebes, both speaking at once.
Ech: Yes, Phaedo; and I don't wonder at their assenting. Any one who has the least sense will acknowledge the wonderful clearness of Socrates' reasoning.
Pha: Certainly, Echecrates; and that was the feeling of the whole company at the time.
Ech: Yes, and equally of ourselves, who were not of the company, and are now listening to your recital. But what followed?
Pha: After all this was admitted, and they had agreed about the existence of ides and the participation in them of the other things which derive their names from them, Socrates, if I remember rightly, said:-
"This is your way of speaking; and yet when you say that Simmias is greater than Socrates and less than Phaedo, do you not predicate of Simmias both greatness and smallness?"
"Yes, I do."
"But still you allow that Simmias does not really exceed Socrates, as the words may seem to imply, because he is Simmias, but by reason of the size which he has; just as Simmias does not exceed Socrates because he is Simmias, any more than because Socrates is Socrates, but because he has smallness when compared with the greatness of Simmias?"
"And if Phaedo exceeds him in size, this is not because Phaedo is Phaedo, but because Phaedo has greatness relatively to Simmias, who is comparatively smaller?"
"That is true."
"And therefore Simmias is said to be great, and is also said to be small, because he is a mean between them, exceeding the smallness of the one by his greatness, and allowing the greatness of the other to exceed his smallness." He added, laughing, "I am speaking like a book, but I believe that what I am saying is true."
Simmias assented to this.
"The reason why I say this is that I want you to agree with me in thinking, not only that absolute greatness will never be great and also small, but that greatness in us or in the concrete will never admit the small or admit of being exceeded: instead of this one of two things will happen, either the greater will fly or retire before the opposite, which is the less, or at the advance of the less will cease to exist; but will not, if allowing or admitting smallness, be changed by that; even as I, having received and admitted smallness when compared with Simmias, remain just as I was and am the same small person. And as the idea of greatness can not condescend ever to be or become small, in like manner the smallness in us can not be or become great; nor can any other opposite which remains the same ever be or become its own opposite, but either passes away or perishes in the change.
"That", replied Cebes, "is quite my notion."
One of the company, though I do not exactly remember which of them, on hearing this, said: "By heaven, is not this the direct contrary of what was admitted before — that out of the greater came the less and out of the less the greater, and that opposites were simply generated from opposites; whereas now this seems to be utterly denied."
Socrates inclined his head to the speaker and listened. "I like your courage", he said, "in reminding us of this. But you do not observe that there is a difference in the two cases. For then we were speaking of opposites in the concrete, and now of the essential opposite which, as is affirmed, neither in us nor in nature can ever be at variance with itself: then, my friend, we were speaking of things in which opposites are inherent and which are called after them, but now about the opposites which are inherent in them and which give their name to them; these essential opposites will never, as we maintain, admit of generation into or out of one another." At the same time, turning to Cebes, he said: "Were you at all disconcerted, Cebes, at our friend's objection?"
"That was not my feeling", said Cebes; "and yet I can not deny that I am apt to be disconcerted."
"Then we are agreed after all", said Socrates, "that the opposite will never in any case be opposed to itself?"
"To that we are quite agreed", he replied.
"Yet once more let me ask you to consider the question from another point of view, and see whether you agree with me:- There is a thing which you term heat, and another thing which you term cold?"
"But are they the same as fire and snow?"
"Most assuredly not."
"Heat is not the same as fire, nor is cold the same as snow?"
"And yet you will surely admit that when snow, as was before said, is under the influence of heat, they will not remain snow and heat; but at the advance of the heat, the snow will either retire or perish?"
"Very true", he replied.
"And the fire too at the advance of the cold will either retire or perish; and when the fire is under the influence of the cold, they will not remain as before, fire and cold."
"That is true", he said.
"And in some cases the name of the idea is not confined to the idea; but anything else which, not being the idea, exists only in the form of the idea, may also lay claim to it. I will try to make this clearer by an example: — The odd number is always called by the name of odd?"
"But is this the only thing which is called odd? Are there not other things which have their own name, and yet are called odd because, although not the same as oddness, they are never without oddness? — that is what I mean to ask — whether numbers such as the number three are not of the class of odd. And there are many other examples: would you not say, for example, that three may be called by its proper name, and also be called odd, which is not the same with three? And this may be said not only of three but also of five, and every alternate number — each of them without being oddness is odd, and in the same way two and four, and the whole series of alternate numbers, has every number even, without being evenness. Do you admit that?"
"Yes", he said, "how can I deny that?"
"Then now mark the point at which I am aiming: — not only do essential opposites exclude one another, but also concrete things which, although not in themselves opposed, contain opposites; these, I say, also reject the idea which is opposed to the which is contained in them, and at the advance of that they either perish or withdraw. There is the number three for example: — will not that endure anihilation or anything sooner than be converted into an even number, remaining three?"
"Very true", said Cebes.
"And yet", he said, "the number two is certainly not opposed to the number three?"
"It is not."
"Then not only do opposite ideas repel the advance of one another, but also there are other things which repel the approach of opposites."
"That is quite true", he said.
"Suppose", he said, "that we endeavour, if possible, to determine what these are."
"By all means."
"Are they not, Cebes, such as compel the things of which they have possession, not only to take their own form, but also the form of some opposite?"
"What do you mean?"
"I mean, as I was just now saying, that those things which are possessed by the number three must not only be three in number, but must also be odd."
"And on this oddness, of which the number three has the impress, the opposite idea will never intrude?"
"And this impress was given by the odd principle?"
"And the odd is opposed to the even?"
"Then the idea of the even number will never arrive at three?"
"Then three has no part in the even?"
"Then the triad or number three is uneven?"
"To return then to my distinction of natures which are not opposites, and yet do not admit opposites: as in this instance, three, although not opposed to the even, does not any more admit of the even, but always brings the opposite into play on the other side; or as two does not receive the odd, or fire the cold — from these examples (and there are many more of them) perhaps you may arrive at the general conclusion that not only opposites will not receive opposites, but also that nothing which brings the opposite will admit the opposite of that which it brings in that to which it is brought.
"And here let me recapitulate — for there is no harm in repetition. The number five will not admit the nature of the even, any more than ten, which is the double of five, will admit the nature of the odd — the double, though not strictly opposed to the odd, rejects the odd altogether.
"Nor again will parts in the ratio of 3:2, nor any fraction in which there is a half, nor again in which there is a third, admit the notion of the whole, although they are not opposed to the whole. You will agree to that?"
"Yes", he said. "I entirely agree and go along with you in that."
"And now", he said, "I think that I may begin again; and to the question which I am about to ask I will beg you to give not the old safe answer, but another of which I will offer you an example; and I hope that you will find in what has been just said another foundation which is as safe. I mean that if any one asks you "what that is, the inherence of which makes the body hot", you will reply not heat (this is what I call the safe and stupid answer), but fire, a far better answer, which we are now in a condition to give. Or if any one asks you "why a body is diseased", you will not say from disease, but from fever; and instead of saying that oddness is the cause of odd numbers, you will say that monad is the cause of them: and so of things in general, as I dare say that you will understand sufficiently without my adducing and further examples."
"Yes", he said, "I quite understand you."
"Tell me, then, what is that the inherence of which will render the body alive?"
"The soul", he replied.
"And this is always the case?"
"Yes", he said, "of course."
"Then whatever the soul possesses, to that she comes bearing life?"
"And is there any opposite to life?"
"There is", he said.
"And what is that?"
"Then the soul, as has been acknowledged, will never receive the opposite of what she brings. And now, he said, what did we call that principle which repels the even?"
"And that principle which repels the musical, or the just?"
"The unmusical", he said, "and the unjust."
"And what do we call that principle which does not admit of death?"
"The immortal", he said.
"And does the soul admit of death?"
"Then the soul is immortal?"
"Yes", he said.
"And we may say that this is proven?"
"Yes, abundantly proven, Socrates", he replied.
"And supposing that the odd were imperishable, must not three be imperishable?"
"And if that which is cold were imperishable, when the warm principle came attacking the snow, must not the snow have retired whole and unmelted — for it could never have perished, not could it have remained and admitted the heat?"
"True", he said.
"Again, if the uncooling or warm principle were imperishable, the fire when assailed by the cold would not have perished or have been extinguished, but would have gone away unaffected?"
"Certainly", he said.
"And the same may be said of the immortal: if the immortal is also imperishable, the soul when attacked by death can not perish; for the preceding argument shows that the soul will not admit of death, or ever be dead, any more than three or the odd number will admit of the even; or fire, or the heat in the fire, of the cold. Yet a person may say: 'But although the odd will not become even at the approach of the even, why may not the odd perish and even take the place of the odd?' Now to him who makes this objection, we can not answer that the odd principle is imperishable; for this has not been acknowledged, but if this had been acknowledged, there would have been no difficulty in contending that at the approach of the even the odd principle and the number three took up their departure; and the same argument would have held good of fire and heat and any other thing."
"And the same may be said of the immortal: if the immortal is also imperishable, then the soul will be imperishable as well as immortal: but if not, some other proof of her imperishableness will have to be given."
"No other proof is needed", he said; "for if the immortal, being eternal, is liable to perish, then nothing is imperishable."
"Yes", replied Socrates, "all men will agree that God, and the essential form of life, and the immortal in general, will never perish."
"Yes, all men", he said — "that is true; and what is more, gods, if I am not mistaken, as well as men."
"Seeing then that the immortal is indestructible, must not the soul, if she is immortal, be also imperishable?"
"Then when death attacks a man, the mortal portion of him may be supposed to die, but the immortal goes out of the way of death and is preserved safe and sound?"
"Then, Cebes, beyond question, the soul is immortal and imperishable, and our souls will truly exist in another world!"
"I am convinced, Socrates", said Cebes, "and have nothing more to object; but if my friend Simmias, or any one else, has any further objection, he had better speak out and not keep silence, since I do not know how there can ever be a more fitting time to which he can defer the discussion, if there is anything which he wants to say or have said."
"But I have nothing more to say", replied Simmias; "nor did I see any room for uncertainty except that which arises necessarily out of the greatness of the subject and the feebleness of man, and which I can not help feeling."
"Yes, Simmias", replied Socrates, "that is well said: and more than that, first principles, even if they appear certain, should be carefully considered; and when they are satisfactorily ascertained then, with a sort of hesitating confidence in human reason, you may, I think, follow the course of the argument; and if this is clear, there will be no need for any further inquiry."
"That", he said, "is true."
"For after death, as they say, the genius of each individual, to whom he belonged in life, leads him to a certain place in which the dead are gathered together for judgment, whence they go into the world below, following the guide, who is appointed to conduct them from this world to the other: and when they have there received their due and remained their time, another guide brings them back again after many revolutions of ages. Now this journey to the other world is not, as Aeschylus says in the Telephus, a single and straight path; but the soul which desires the body, and which, as I was relating before, has long been fluttering about the lifeless frame and the world of sight, is after many struggles and many sufferings hardly and with violence carried away by her attendant genius, and when she arrives at the place where the other souls are gathered, if she be impure and have done impure deeds, or been concerned in foul murders or other crimes which are the brothers of these, and the works of brothers in crime — from that soul every one flees and turns away; no one will be her companion, no one her guide, but alone she wanders in extremity of evil until certain times are fulfilled; and when they are fulfilled, she is borne irresistibly to her own fitting habitation; as every pure and just soul which has passed through life in the company and under the guidance of the gods has also her own proper home.
"What do you mean, Socrates?" said Simmias. "I have myself heard many descriptions of the earth, but I do not know in what you are putting your faith, and I should like to know."
"Well, Simmias", replied Socrates, "the recital of a tale does not, I think, require the art of Glaucus; and I know not that the art of Glaucus could prove the truth of my tale, which I myself should never be able to prove; and even if I could, I fear, Simmias, that my life would come to an end before the argument was completed. I may describe to you, however, the form and regions of the earth according to my conception of them."
"That", said Simmias, "will be enough."
"Well then", he said, "my conviction is that the earth is a round body in the centre of the heavens, and therefore has no need for air or any similar force as a support, but is kept there and hindered from falling or inclining in any way by equability of the surrounding heaven and by her own equipoise. For that which, being in equipoise, is in the centre of that which is equably diffused, will not incline any way in any degree, but will always remain in the same state and not deviate. And this is my first notion."
"Which is surely a correct one", said Simmias.
"Also I believe that the earth is very vast, and that we who dwell in the region extending from the river Phasis to the Pillars of Heracles along the borders of the sea, are just like ants or frogs about a marsh, and inhabit a small portion only, and that many others dwell in many like places. For I should say that in all parts of the earth there are hollows of various forms and sizes, into which the water and the mist and the air collect; and that the true earth is pure and in the pure heaven, in which also are the stars — that is the heaven which is commonly spoken of as the ether, of which this is but the sediment collecting in the hollows of the earth.
"But we who live in these hollows are deceived into the notion that we are dwelling above on the surface of the earth; which is just as if a creature who was at the bottom of the sea were to fancy that he was on the surface of the water, and that the sea was the heaven through which he saw the sun and the other stars — he having never come to the surface by reason of his feebleness and sluggishness, and having never lifted up his head and seen, nor ever heard from one who had seen, this other region which is so much purer and fairer that his own. Now this is exactly our case: for we are dwelling in a hollow of the earth, and fancy that we are on the surface; and the air we call the heaven, and in this we imagine that the stars move. But this is also owing to our feebleness and sluggishness, which prevent our reaching the surface of the air: for if any man could arrive at the exterior limit, or take the wings of a bird and fly upward, like a fish who puts his head out and sees this world, he would see a world beyond; and, if the nature of man could sustain the sight, he would acknowledge that this was the place of the true heaven and the true light and the true stars. For this earth, and the stones, and the entire region which surrounds us, are spoiled and corroded, like the things in the sea which are corroded by the brine; for in the sea too there is hardly any noble or perfect growth, but clefts only, and sand, and an endless slough of mud; and even the shore is not to be compared to the fairer sights of this world. And greater far is the superiority of the other. Now of that upper earth which is under the heaven, I can tell you a charming tale, Simmias, which is well worth hearing."
"And we, Socrates", replied Simmias, "shall be charmed to listen."
"The tale, my friend", he said, "is as follows: — In the first place, the earth, when looked at from above, is like one of those balls which have leather coverings in twelve pieces, and is of divers colours, of which the colours which painters use on earth are only a sample. But there the whole earth is made up of them, and they are brighter far and clearer than ours; there is a purple of wonderful lustre, also the radiance of gold, and the white which is in the earth is whiter than any chalk or snow. Of these and other colours the earth is made up, and they are more in number and fairer than the eye of man has ever seen; and the very hollows (of which I was speaking) filled with air and water are seen like light flashing amid the other colours, and have a colour of their own, which gives a sort of unity to the variety of the earth.
"And in this fair region everything that grows — trees, and flowers, and fruits — are in a like degree fairer than any here; and there are hills, and stones in them in a like degree smoother, and more transparent, and fairer in colour than our highly-valued emeralds and sardonyxes and jaspers, and other gems, which are but minute fragments of them: for there all the stones are like our precious stones, and fairer still. The reason of this is that they are pure, and not, like our precious stones, infected or corroded by the corrupt briny elements which coagulate among us, and which breed foulness and disease both in earth and stones, as well as in animals and plants. They are the jewels of the upper earth, which also shines with gold and silver and the like, and they are visible to sight and large and abundant and found in every region of the earth, and blessed is he who sees them.
"And upon the earth are animals and men, some in a middle region, others dwelling about the air as we dwell about the sea; others in islands which the air flows round, near the continent: and in a word, the air is used by them as the water and sea are by us, and the ether is to them what the air is to us. Moreover, the temperament of their season is such that they have no disease, and live much longer than we do, and have sight and hearing and smell, and all the other senses, in far greater perfection, in the same degree that air is purer than water or the ether than air. Also they have temples and sacred places in which the gods really dwell, and they hear their voices and receive their answers, and are conscious of them and hold converse with them, and they see the sun, moon, and stars as they really are, and their other blessedness is of a piece with this.
"Such is the nature of the whole earth, and of the things which are round the earth; and there are divers regions in the hollows on the face of the globe everywhere, some of them deeper and also wider than that which we inhabit, others deeper and with a narrower opening than ours, and some are shallower and wider; all have numerous perforations, and passages broad and narrow in the interior of the earth, connecting them with one another; and there flows into and out of them, as into basins, a vast tide of water, and huge subterranean streams of perennial rivers, and springs hot and cold, and a great fire, and great rivers of fire, and streams of liquid mud, thin or thick (like the rivers of mud in Sicily, and the lava streams which follow them), and the regions about which they happen to flow are filled up with them. And there is a sort of swing in the interior of the earth which moves all this up and down. Now the swing is on this wise: — There is a chasm which is the vastest of them all, and pierces right through the whole earth; this is that which Homer describes in the words: -
and which he in other places, and many other poets, have called Tartarus.
"And the swing is caused by the streams flowing into and out of this chasm, and they each have the nature of the soil through which they flow. And the reason why the streams are always flowing in and out is that the watery element has no bed or bottom, and is surging and swinging up and down, and the surrounding wind and air do the same; they follow the water up and down, hither and thither, over the earth — just as in respiring the air is always in process of inhalation and exhalation; — and the wind swinging with the water in and out produces fearful and irresistible blasts: when the waters retire with a rush into the lower parts of the earth, as they are called, they flow through the earth into those regions, and fill them up as with the alternate motion of a pump, and then when they leave those regions and rush back hither, they again fill the hollows here, and when these are filled, flow through subterranean channels and find their way to their several places, forming seas, and lakes, and rivers, and springs. Thence they again enter the earth, some of them making a long circuit into many lands, others going to few places and those not distant; and again fall into Tartarus, some at a point a good deal lower than that at which they rose, and others not much lower, but all in some degree lower than the point of issue. And some burst forth again on the opposite side, and some on the same side, and some wind round the earth with one or many folds like the coils of a serpent, and descend as far as they can, but always return and fall into the lake. The rivers on either side can descend only to the centre and no further, for to the rivers on both sides the opposite side is a precipice.
"Now these rivers are many, and mighty, and diverse, and there are four principal ones, of which the greatest and outermost is that called Oceanus, which flows round the earth in a circle; and in the opposite direction flows Acheron, which passes under the earth through desert places, into the Acherusian lake: this is the lake to the shores of which the souls of the many go when they are dead, and after waiting an appointed time, which is to some a longer and to some a shorter time, they are sent back again to be born as animals. The third river rises between the two, and near the place of rising pours into a vast region of fire, and forms a lake larger than the Mediterranean Sea, boiling with water and mud; and proceeding muddy and turbid, and winding about the earth, comes, among other places, to the extremities of the Acherusian lake, but mingles not with the waters of the lake, and after making many coils about the earth plunges into Tartarus at a deeper level. This is that Pyriphlegethon, as the stream is called, which throws up jets of fire in all sorts of places. The fourth river goes out on the opposite side, and falls first of all into a wild and savage region, which is all of a dark blue colour, like lapis lazuli; and this is that river which is called the Stygian river, and falls into and forms the Lake Styx, and after falling into the lake and receiving strange powers in the waters, passes under the earth, winding round in the opposite direction to the Pyriphlegethon and meeting in the Acherusian lake from the opposite side. And the water of this river too mingles with no other, but flows round in a circle and falls into Tartarus over against Pyriphlegethon; and the name of this river, as the poets say, is Cocytus.
"Such is the nature of the other world; and when the dead arrive at the place to which the genius of each severally conveys them, first of all, they have sentence passed upon them, as they have lived well and piously or not. And those who appear to have lived neither well nor ill, go to the river Acheron, and mount such conveyances as they can get, and are carried in them to the lake, and there they dwell and are purified of their evil deeds, and suffer the penalty of the wrongs which they have done to others, and are absolved, and receive the rewards of their good deeds according to their deserts. But those who appear to be incurable by reason of the greatness of their crimes — who have committed many and terrible deeds of sacrilege, murders foul and violent, or the like — such are hurled into Tartarus which is their suitable destiny, and they never come out. Those again who have committed crimes which, although great, are not unpardonable — who in a moment of anger, for example, have done violence to a father or mother and have repented for the remainder of their lives, or who have taken the life of another under like extenuating circumstances — these are plunged into Tartarus, the pains of which they are compelled to undergo for a year, but at the end of the year the wave casts them forth — mere homicides by way of Cocytus, parricides and matricides by Pyriphlegethon — and they are borne to the Acherusian lake, and there they lift up their voices and call upon the victims whom they have slain or wronged, to have pity on them, and to receive them, and to let them come out of the river into the lake. And if they prevail, then they come forth and cease from their troubles; but if not, they are carried back again into Tartarus and from thence into the rivers unceasingly, until they obtain mercy from those whom they have wronged: for that is the sentence inflicted upon them by their judges. Those also who are remarkable for having led holy lives are released from this earthly prison, and go to their pure home which is above, and dwell in the purer earth; and those who have duly purified themselves with philosophy, live henceforth altogether without the body, in mansions fairer far than these, which may not be described, and of which the time would fail me to tell.
"Wherefore, Simmias, seeing all these things, what ought not we to do in order to obtain virtue and wisdom in this life? Fair is the prize, and the hope great!
"I do not mean to affirm that the description which I have given of the soul and her mansions is exactly true — a man of sense ought hardly to say that. But I do say that, inasmuch as the soul is shown to be immortal, he may venture to think, not improperly or unworthily, that something of the kind is true. The venture is a glorious one, and he ought to comfort himself with words like these, which is the reason why I lengthen out the tale.
"Wherefore, I say, let a man be of good cheer about his soul, who has cast away the pleasures and ornaments of the body as alien to him, and rather hurtful in their effects, and has followed after the pleasures of knowledge in this life; who has adorned the soul in her own proper jewels, which are temperance, and justice, and courage, and nobility, and truth — in these arrayed she is ready to go on her journey to the world below, when her time comes.
"You, Simmias and Cebes, and all other men, will depart at some time or other. Me already, as the tragic poet would say, the voice of fate calls. Soon I must drink the poison; and I think that I had better repair to the bath first, in order that the women may not have the trouble of washing my body after I am dead."
"Nothing particular", he said: "only, as I have always told you, I would have you look to yourselves; that is a service which you may always be doing to me and mine as well as to yourselves. And you need not make professions; for if you take no thought for yourselves, and walk not according to the precepts which I have given you, not now for the first time, the warmth of your professions will be of no avail."
"We will do our best", said Crito. "But in what way would you have us bury you?"
"In any way you like; only you must get hold of me, and take care that I do not walk away from you." Then he turned to us, and added with a smile: — "I can not make Crito believe that I am the same Socrates who has been talking and conducting the argument; he fancies that I am the other Socrates whom he will soon see, a dead body — and he asks, How shall he bury me?
"And though I have spoken many words in the endeavour to show that when I have drunk the poison I shall leave you and go to the joys of the blessed, — these words of mine with which I comforted you and myself have had, as I perceive, no effect upon Crito.
"And therefore I want you to be surety for me now, as he was surety for me at the trial: but let the promise be of another sort; for he was my surety to the judges that I would remain, but you must be my surety to him that I shall not remain, but go away and depart; and then he will suffer less at my death, and not be grieved when he sees my body being burned or buried. I would not have him sorrow at my hard lot, or say at the burial, Thus we lay out Socrates, or, Thus we follow him to the grave or bury him; for false words are not only evil in themselves, but they infect the soul with evil.
"Be of good cheer, then, my dear Crito, and say that you are burying my body only, and do with that as is usual, and as you think best."
When he had spoken these words, he arose and went into the bath-chamber with Crito, who bid us wait; and we waited, talking and thinking of the subject of the discourse, and also of the greatness of our sorrow; he was like a father of whom we were being bereaved, and we were about to pass the rest of our lives as orphans. When he had taken the bath his children were brought to him — he had two young sons and an elder one — and the women of his family also came, and he talked to them and gave them a few directions in the presence of Crito; and he then dismissed them and returned to us.
Socrates looked at him and said: "I return your good wishes, and will do as you bid." Then turning to us, he said, "How charming the man is: since I have been in prison he has always been coming to see me, and at times he would talk to me, and was as good as could be to me, and now see how generously he sorrows for me. But we must do as he says, Crito; let the cup be brought, if the poison is prepared: if not, let the attendant prepare some."
"Yet", said Crito, "the sun is still upon the hill-tops, and many a one has taken the draught late, and after the announcement has been made to him, he has eaten and drunk, and indulges in sensual delights; do not hasten then, there is still time."
Socrates said: "Yes, Crito, and they of whom you speak are right in doing thus, for they think that they will gain by the delay; but I am right in not doing thus, for I do not think that I should gain anything by drinking the poison a little later; I should be sparing and saving a life which is already gone; I could only laugh at myself for this. Please then to do as I say, and not to refuse me."
Crito, when he heard this, made a sign to the servant; and the servant went in, and remained for some time, and then returned with the jailer carrying the cup of poison. Socrates said: "You, my good friend, who are experienced in these matters, shall give me directions how I am to proceed."
The man answered: "You have only to walk about until your legs are heavy, and then to lie down and the poison will act."
At the same time he handed the cup to Socrates, who in the easiest and gentlest manner, without the least fear or change of colour or feature, looking at the man with all his eyes, Echecrates, as his manner was, took the cup and said: "What do you say about making a libation out of this cup to any god? May I, or not?"
The man answered: "We only prepare, Socrates, just so much as we deem enough."
"I understand", he said: "yet I may and must pray to the gods to prosper my journey from this to that other world — may this then, which is my prayer, be granted to me."
Then holding the cup to his lips, quite readily and cheerfully he drank off the poison.
And hitherto most of us had been able to control our sorrow; but now when we saw him drinking, and saw too that he had finished the draught, we could no longer forbear, and in spite of myself my own tears were flowing fast; so that I covered my face and wept over myself, for certainly I was not weeping over him, but at the thought of my own calamity in having lost such a companion. Nor was I the first, for Crito, when he found himself unable to restrain his tears, had got up and moved away, and I followed; and at that moment, Apollodorus, who had been weeping all the time, broke out into a loud cry which made cowards of us all.
Socrates alone retained his calmness: "What is this strange outcry?" he said. "I sent away the women mainly in order that they might not offend in this way, for I have heard that a man should die in peace. Be quiet then, and have patience."
When we heard that, we were ashamed, and refrained our tears; and he walked about until, as he said, his legs began to fail, and then he lay on his back, according to the directions, and the man who gave him the poison now and then looked at his feet and legs; and after a while he pressed his foot hard, and asked him if he could feel; and he said "No": and then his leg, and so upwards and upwards, and showed us that he was cold and stiff.
And he felt then himself, and said: "When the poison reaches the heart, that will be the end." He was beginning to grow cold about the groin, when he uncovered his face, for he had covered himself up, and said (they were his last words) he said: "Crito, I owe a cock to Asclepius; will you remember to pay the debt?"
"The debt shall be paid", said Crito; "is there anything else?"
There was no answer to this question; but in a minute or two a movement was heard, and the attendant uncovered him; his eyes were set, and Crito closed his eyes and mouth.
Such was the end, Echecrates, of our friend, whom I may truly call the wisest, and justest, and best of all men whom I have ever known.